Diagnostic and prognostic computed tomography imaging markers in basilar artery occlusion (Review)
- Rares Cristian Filep
- Lucian Marginean
- Adina Stoian
- Zoltan Bajko
Affiliations: PhD School of Medicine, ‘George Emil Palade’ University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania, Department of Pathophysiology, ‘George Emil Palade’ University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania, Department of Neurology, ‘George Emil Palade’ University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania
- Published online on: July 6, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10386
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Acute ischemic stroke treatment has been revolutionized by the addition of mechanical and aspiration thrombectomy. Randomized controlled trials have proven beyond doubt, the substantial clinical impact of endovascular interventions in anterior circulation territory strokes. Unfortunately, patients with vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke could not be included in these early trials due to inherent clinical, radiological, and prognostic particularities of posterior circulation ischemia; thus, indications for the treatment of posterior fossa strokes and basilar artery occlusion (BAO) are mainly based on retrospective studies and registries. BAO carries high morbidity and mortality, despite the new improvements in endovascular therapy. Identifying patients who will likely benefit from invasive treatment and have a good clinical outcome resides in discovering clinical, biological, or imaging markers, that have prognostic implications. Such imaging markers have been described, especially in the last decade. Hyperdense Basilar Artery Sign (HDBA), Posterior Circulations‑Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (pc‑ASPECTS), Pons‑Midbrain Index (PMI), Posterior Circulation Collateral Score (pc‑CS), Posterior Circulation CT Angiography Score (pc‑CTA), and Basilar Artery on CT Prognostic Score (BATMAN), are computed tomography (CT) markers with properties that can aid the diagnosis of BAO and can independently predict clinical outcome. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of these imaging signs to have a thorough understanding of their diagnostic and prognostic attributes.