Neuroprotective effects of an in vitro BBB permeable phenoxythiophene sulfonamide small molecule in glutamate‑induced oxidative injury

  • Authors:
    • Smritee Pokharel
    • Nailya S. Gliyazova
    • Srinivasa R. Dandepally
    • Alfred L. Williams
    • Gordon C. Ibeanu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 25, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.11002
  • Article Number: 79
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Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in oxidative stress‑associated neuronal cell death during ischemia. Further investigation into the inhibition of excessive ROS generation post‑stroke is urgently required for the treatment of ischemic stroke. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of the blood‑brain barrier (BBB) penetrant B355227 were investigated. B355227 is a chemical analogue of B355252, and the role of the phenoxythiophene sulfonamide compound B355227 was further investigated in a glutamate‑induced oxidative injury model. An in vitro model of the BBB was established in the immortalized mouse brain capillary endothelial cell line, bEnd.3. Formation of barrier in Transwell inserts was confirmed using EVOM resistance meter and Caffeine, Imatinib and Axitinib were used to validate the efficacy of the model. The validated BBB assay in combination with high performance liquid chromatography were used to analyse and verify the permeability of B355227 through the barrier. The integrity of the cell junctions after the BBB assays were confirmed using immunofluorescence to visualize the expression of the barrier junction protein zonula occludens‑1. Cell survival was measured with Resazurin, a redox indicator dye, in HT22, a hippocampal neuronal cell treated with 5 mM glutamate or co‑treated with the B355227 recovered from the BBB permeability experiment. Changes in glutathione levels were detected using a glutathione detection kit, while analyses of ROS, calcium (Ca2+), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were accomplished with the fluorescent dyes 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescein diacetate, Fura‑2 AM and MitoTracker Red dyes, respectively. Immunoblotting was also performed to detect the expression and activation of Erk1/2, p‑38, JNK, Bax and Bcl‑2. The results of the present study demonstrated that B355227 crossed the BBB in vitro and protected HT22 from oxidative injury induced by glutamate exposure. Treatment of cells with B355227 blocked the glutamate‑dependent depletion of intracellular glutathione and significantly reduced ROS production. Increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent collapse of the MMP was attenuated by B355227. Furthermore, the results of the present study demonstrated that B355227 protected against oxidative stress via the MAPK pathway, by increasing the activation of Erk1/2, JNK and P38, and restoring anti‑apoptotic Bcl‑2. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that B355227 has potent antioxidant and neuroprotective attributes in glutamate‑induced neuronal cell death. Further investigation into the role of B355227 in the modulation of glutamate‑dependent oxidative stress is required.

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January-2022
Volume 23 Issue 1

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Spandidos Publications style
Pokharel S, Gliyazova NS, Dandepally SR, Williams AL and Ibeanu GC: Neuroprotective effects of an <em>in vitro</em> BBB permeable phenoxythiophene sulfonamide small molecule in glutamate‑induced oxidative injury. Exp Ther Med 23: 79, 2022
APA
Pokharel, S., Gliyazova, N.S., Dandepally, S.R., Williams, A.L., & Ibeanu, G.C. (2022). Neuroprotective effects of an <em>in vitro</em> BBB permeable phenoxythiophene sulfonamide small molecule in glutamate‑induced oxidative injury. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 23, 79. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.11002
MLA
Pokharel, S., Gliyazova, N. S., Dandepally, S. R., Williams, A. L., Ibeanu, G. C."Neuroprotective effects of an <em>in vitro</em> BBB permeable phenoxythiophene sulfonamide small molecule in glutamate‑induced oxidative injury". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 23.1 (2022): 79.
Chicago
Pokharel, S., Gliyazova, N. S., Dandepally, S. R., Williams, A. L., Ibeanu, G. C."Neuroprotective effects of an <em>in vitro</em> BBB permeable phenoxythiophene sulfonamide small molecule in glutamate‑induced oxidative injury". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 23, no. 1 (2022): 79. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.11002