Expression of yes‑associated protein, β‑catenin and smoothened, and their clinical significance in invasive breast cancer
- Pengju Liu
- Jianfeng Zeng
- Gaohua Yang
Affiliations: Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000, P.R. China
- Published online on: May 6, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11356
Copyright: © Liu
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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The expression profile and role of yes‑associated protein (YAP) in occurrence and development of breast cancer is ambiguous. The present study aimed to explore the relationship among the YAP, β‑catenin and smoothened (SMO) signaling pathways to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of invasive breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the protein expression levels of YAP, β‑catenin and SMO in tumor, tumor‑adjacent and normal breast tissue. The possible association between the expression levels of these three proteins and the clinicopathological features of patients with breast cancer was then analyzed by the χ2 test. The protein expression of YAP was found to be downregulated, whilst β‑catenin and SMO expression were found to be upregulated in tumor tissues as compared with that in normal breast tissues. In addition, the expression of YAP in breast cancer tissues was found to be associated with that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), progesterone and estrogen receptors. By contrast, the protein expression of β‑catenin and SMO in breast cancer tissues was only associated with HER2. There was a negative correlation between the expression of YAP and SMO protein in breast cancer tissues. Compared with that in the changes in each of YAP, β‑catenin and SMO protein expression levels individually, their combined changes in expression were demonstrated to associate significantly with the tumor histological grade. To conclude, data from the present study suggest that the combined protein expression of YAP, β‑catenin and SMO can be used as a prognostic indicator for the treatment of invasive breast cancer.