GRWD1 affects the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of triple negative breast cancer through the Notch signaling pathway
Affiliations: Department of Breast Surgery, Shanxi Provincial Tumor Hospital and Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030013, P.R. China
- Published online on: May 30, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11400
Copyright: © Yao
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Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor, among which triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most invasive and prone to recurrence and metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of glutamate‑rich WD‑repeat‑containing protein 1 (GRWD1) in TNBC cells. The expression of GRWD1 in the normal human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis. The transfection effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑GRWD1 and overexpression (Ov)‑Notch1 were also confirmed by RT‑qPCR and western blotting. The proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of transfected cells were in turn analyzed by Cell Counting Kit‑8, 5‑Ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine, Matrigel and wound healing assays. The expression of proteins related to proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and the Notch signaling pathway was detected by western blotting. As a result, GRWD1 expression was upregulated in breast cancer cells and was revealed to be highest in MDA‑MB‑231 and HCC1937 cells. GRWD1 knockdown suppressed TNBC cell proliferation, invasion and migration and promoted TNBC cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of Notch1 and Notch4 was inhibited by GRWD1 knockdown. The expression of downstream genes of the Notch signaling pathway Hes1, Hes5, Hey1, Hey2, p21, c‑Myc, cyclin D1, human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor and NF‑kB were all suppressed after siRNA‑GRWD1 transfection. However, Notch1 overexpression reversed the effect of GRWD1 knockdown on biological behaviors of TNBC cells. In conclusion, GRWD1 knockdown could suppress the proliferation, invasion and migration and promoted apoptosis of TNBC cells through inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.