- Dimitrios Vlachakis
- George P. Chrousos
Affiliations: Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biotechnology, School of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece, University Research Institute of Maternal and Child Health and Precision Medicine, and UNESCO Chair on Adolescent Health Care, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, ‘Aghia Sophia’ Children's Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
- Published online on: December 3, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ije.2020.1
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et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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All cell types of an organism contain the same genetic information, but showcase distinct functions and characteristics (1). Cell phenotypes are determined by mechanisms that regulate which genes are expressed and which are silenced, termed epigenetic mechanisms (2). Epigenetics refer to the study of mechanisms and molecules that can perpetuate alternative gene activity states in the context of unaltered DNA sequence (3). The key factors describing epigenetics are heritability and reversibility (4). The mechanisms underlying epigenetic regulation include DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, non‑coding RNA activity and the interplay amongst these (5). The key characteristics of epigenetics have generated immense research interest for possible applications in various biological fields.