Open Access

COVID‑19 global social lockdowns: Energy‑related, psychological, epigenetic, health and environmental impacts (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Eleni Papakonstantinou
    • Katerina Pierouli
    • Thanasis Mitsis
    • Kalliopi Io Diakou
    • Anastasia Marina Palaiogeorgou
    • Flora Bacopoulou
    • George P. Chrousos
    • Elias Eliopoulos
    • Dimitrios Vlachakis
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: August 18, 2021
  • Article Number: 8
  • Copyright: © Papakonstantinou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY_NC 4.0].

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The COVID‑19 pandemic has radically changed the lives of individuals. To date, there is no specific antiviral drug available against SARS‑CoV‑2 and the recently developed vaccines are very promising; however, their influence on the pandemic remains limited. The most effective strategy to reduce the spread of the virus is social distancing and social lockdowns. All humanity is going through a period in which the health domain is at the forefront, demanding the adoption of new habits to protect individuals and public health, such as the continued use of masks and vigilant hand hygiene. Lifestyle conditions have a negative effect on the psychological and mental health of individuals, as there has been an increase in the rates of psychological stress, panic attacks, depression, violence and sleep disorders. Quarantines also have a negative impact on the socio‑economic sector, as unemployment and poverty rates have risen worldwide due to industrial production arrest and closure of businesses. Additionally, the epigenetic effect of the undergoing tension due to the pandemic and social lockdowns can cause a long‑term negative effects on human behavior and physiology. However, lockdowns and quarantines have a positive impact on the environment and energy saving due to limited human activity and transport. Thus, the aim of the present review article was to record the impact of lockdowns on the health, physical and mental, of people as well as on society and the environment.
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