GM-CSF up-regulates the expression of CCL2 by T lymphocytes in mammary tumor-bearing mice
Affiliations: Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
- Published online on: July 1, 2007 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.20.1.129
- Pages: 129-136
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CP-1/CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2) is a β or CC chemokine that is expressed by a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial, smooth muscle, and glial cells. In addition, cells involved in immunity, such as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils have also been shown to express this chemoattractant. Using a murine model of the D1-DMBA-3 mammary adenocarcinoma, we demonstrated the unique production of CCL2 by splenic T lymphocytes from tumor-bearing animals. Because this tumor produces GM-CSF, and this factor is also up-regulated in the B lymphocytes of tumor-bearing mice, we looked at the ability of GM-CSF to induce CCL2 production by T cells. Treatment of normal and tumor bearers' T cells with GM-CSF resulted in an increased secretion of this chemokine. This up-regulation was seen with or without stimulation by Concanavalin A, although these treatments were additive in their effects. The induction of CCL2 was studied at the molecular level by analyzing the effect(s) of a variety of physiological and pharmacological agents on cultured T cells. These results suggest that the tumor-derived factor GM-CSF activates various signaling pathways within splenic T cells to up-regulate CCL2 expression.