The function and mechanisms of action of LOXL2 in cancer (Review)
Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116011, P.R. China
- Published online on: September 2, 2015 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2015.2337
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The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family is comprised of five members, and some members have recently emerged as important regulators of tumor progression. Among these, at present, LOX‑like (LOXL)2 is the prototypical LOX and the most comprehensively studied member. A growing body of evidence has implicated LOXL2 in the promotion of cancer cell invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as in the malignant transformation of solid tumors. Moreover, a high expression of LOXL2 is associated with a poor prognosis. These data have piqued the interest of a number of researchers and research groups, who have identified LOXL2 as a strong target candidate in the development of inhibitors for use as functional and efficacious tumor therapeutics. In the present study, we summarize the recent progress made regarding LOXL2, mainly focusing on its function and mechanisms of action in tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we note that LOXL2 promotes tumor progression possibly by activating multiple signal pathways through a variety of mechanisms, both biochemical and biomechanical. The data presented herein may open new avenues for the therapeutic utility of LOXL2.