Open Access

Immune response (IgG) following full inoculation with BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA among healthcare professionals

  • Authors:
    • Aristidis Tsatsakis
    • Elena Vakonaki
    • Manolis Tzatzarakis
    • Matthaios Flamourakis
    • Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis
    • Konstantinos Poulas
    • Georgios Papazoglou
    • Eleftheria Hatzidaki
    • Nikolas C. Papanikolaou
    • Nikolaos Drakoulis
    • Evangelia Iliaki
    • Georgios N. Goulielmos
    • Manolis Kallionakis
    • Georgios Lazopoulos
    • Stelios Kteniadakis
    • Athanasios Alegkakis
    • Konstantinos Farsalinos
    • Demetrios A. Spandidos
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: September 13, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5033
  • Article Number: 200
  • Copyright: © Tsatsakis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Soon after the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) pandemic in December, 2019, numerous research teams, assisted by vast capital investments, achieved vaccine development in a fraction of time. However, almost 8 months following the initiation of the European vaccination programme, the need for prospective monitoring of the vaccine‑induced immune response, its determinants and related side‑effects remains a priority. The present study aimed to quantify the immune response following full vaccination with the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) mRNA vaccine by measuring the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in healthcare professionals. Moreover, common side‑effects and factors associated with IgG titers were identified. For this purpose, blood samples from 517 individuals were obtained and analysed. Blood sampling was performed at a mean period of 69.0±23.5 days following the second dose of the vaccine. SARS‑CoV‑2 IgG titers had an overall mean value of 4.23±2.76. Females had higher titers than males (4.44±2.70 and 3.89 ±2.84, respectively; P=0.007), while non‑smokers had higher titers than smokers (4.48±2.79 and 3.80±2.64, respectively; P=0.003). An older age was also associated with lower antibody titers (P<0.001). Moreover, the six most prevalent adverse effects were pain at the injection site (72.1%), generalized fatigue (40.5%), malaise (36.3%), myalgia (31,0%), headache (25.8%) and dizziness/weakness (21.6%). The present study demonstrated that the immune response after receiving the BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA vaccine is dependent on various modifiable and non‑modifiable factors. Overall, the findings of the present study highlight two key aspects of the vaccination programs: First, the need for prospective immunosurveillance studies in order to estimate the duration of immunity, and second, the need to identify those individuals who are at a greater risk of developing low IgG titers in order to evaluate the need for a third dose of the vaccine.

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November-2021
Volume 48 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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Spandidos Publications style
Tsatsakis A, Vakonaki E, Tzatzarakis M, Flamourakis M, Nikolouzakis TK, Poulas K, Papazoglou G, Hatzidaki E, Papanikolaou NC, Drakoulis N, Drakoulis N, et al: Immune response (IgG) following full inoculation with BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA among healthcare professionals. Int J Mol Med 48: 200, 2021
APA
Tsatsakis, A., Vakonaki, E., Tzatzarakis, M., Flamourakis, M., Nikolouzakis, T.K., Poulas, K. ... Spandidos, D.A. (2021). Immune response (IgG) following full inoculation with BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA among healthcare professionals. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 48, 200. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5033
MLA
Tsatsakis, A., Vakonaki, E., Tzatzarakis, M., Flamourakis, M., Nikolouzakis, T. K., Poulas, K., Papazoglou, G., Hatzidaki, E., Papanikolaou, N. C., Drakoulis, N., Iliaki, E., Goulielmos, G. N., Kallionakis, M., Lazopoulos, G., Kteniadakis, S., Alegkakis, A., Farsalinos, K., Spandidos, D. A."Immune response (IgG) following full inoculation with BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA among healthcare professionals". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 48.5 (2021): 200.
Chicago
Tsatsakis, A., Vakonaki, E., Tzatzarakis, M., Flamourakis, M., Nikolouzakis, T. K., Poulas, K., Papazoglou, G., Hatzidaki, E., Papanikolaou, N. C., Drakoulis, N., Iliaki, E., Goulielmos, G. N., Kallionakis, M., Lazopoulos, G., Kteniadakis, S., Alegkakis, A., Farsalinos, K., Spandidos, D. A."Immune response (IgG) following full inoculation with BNT162b2 COVID‑19 mRNA among healthcare professionals". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 48, no. 5 (2021): 200. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5033