Open Access

Role of non‑coding RNAs as biomarkers and the application of omics technologies in Alzheimer's disease (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Katerina Pierouli
    • Eleni Papakonstantinou
    • Louis Papageorgiou
    • Io Diakou
    • Thanasis Mitsis
    • Konstantina Dragoumani
    • Demetrios A. Spandidos
    • Flora Bacopoulou
    • George P. Chrousos
    • George Ν. Goulielmos
    • Elias Eliopoulos
    • Dimitrios Vlachakis
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 24, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2022.5208
  • Article Number: 5
  • Copyright: © Pierouli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has a significant association with age. Despite its increasing incidence in the population, the etiology of the disease remains poorly understood, and there are currently no effective treatments readily available. The main genes that are associated with AD are the amyloid precursor protein, presenilin‑1 and presenilin‑2, as well as the apolipoprotein E gene. In addition to genetic factors, a wide range of environmental and lifestyle factors are equally characterized as risk factors for the development of AD, while non‑coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and other epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in their detrimental effects. Multiple types of ncRNAs, such as microRNAs, circular RNAs, Piwi‑interacting RNAs and long non‑coding RNAs are being increasingly implicated in AD. Alterations in ncRNAs can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid, as well in as the brain, highlighting these as promising biomarkers for the detection and treatment of AD. Developments in high‑throughput technologies have led to the so‑called ‘omics’ era, which involves the collection of big data and information at both molecular and protein levels, while combining the development of novel computational and statistical tools capable of analyzing and filtering such data. The present review discusses the role of ncRNAs and their use as biomarkers for AD, and summarizes the findings from the application of omics technologies in AD.

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January-2023
Volume 51 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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Spandidos Publications style
Pierouli K, Papakonstantinou E, Papageorgiou L, Diakou I, Mitsis T, Dragoumani K, Spandidos DA, Bacopoulou F, Chrousos GP, Goulielmos GΝ, Goulielmos GΝ, et al: Role of non‑coding RNAs as biomarkers and the application of omics technologies in Alzheimer's disease (Review). Int J Mol Med 51: 5, 2023
APA
Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Papageorgiou, L., Diakou, I., Mitsis, T., Dragoumani, K. ... Vlachakis, D. (2023). Role of non‑coding RNAs as biomarkers and the application of omics technologies in Alzheimer's disease (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 51, 5. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2022.5208
MLA
Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Papageorgiou, L., Diakou, I., Mitsis, T., Dragoumani, K., Spandidos, D. A., Bacopoulou, F., Chrousos, G. P., Goulielmos, G. Ν., Eliopoulos, E., Vlachakis, D."Role of non‑coding RNAs as biomarkers and the application of omics technologies in Alzheimer's disease (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 51.1 (2023): 5.
Chicago
Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Papageorgiou, L., Diakou, I., Mitsis, T., Dragoumani, K., Spandidos, D. A., Bacopoulou, F., Chrousos, G. P., Goulielmos, G. Ν., Eliopoulos, E., Vlachakis, D."Role of non‑coding RNAs as biomarkers and the application of omics technologies in Alzheimer's disease (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 51, no. 1 (2023): 5. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2022.5208