Open Access

Digestive system infection by SARS‑CoV‑2: Entry mechanism, clinical symptoms and expression of major receptors (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Liming Zheng
    • Li Zhang
    • Yi Zheng
    • Jiaxing An
    • Guorong Wen
    • Hai Jin
    • Biguang Tuo
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: January 20, 2023     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2023.5222
  • Article Number: 19
  • Copyright: © Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Besides causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS‑coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) also harms the digestive system. Given the appearance of numerous cases of SARS‑CoV‑2, it has been demonstrated that SARS‑CoV‑2 is able to harm target organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas, and either worsen the condition of patients with basic digestive illnesses or make their prognosis poor. According to several previously published studies, angiotensin‑converting enzyme II (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease II (TMPRSS2) are expressed either singly or in combination in the digestive system and in other regions of the human body. In order to change the viral conformation, create a fusion hole and release viral RNA into the host cell for replication and transcription, SARS‑CoV‑2 is capable of binding to these two proteins through the spike protein on its surface. As a result, the body experiences an immune reaction and an inflammatory reaction, which may lead to nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and even gastrointestinal bleeding, elevated levels of liver enzymes, acute liver injury, pancreatitis and other serious lesions. In order to provide possible strategies for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of digestive system diseases during the COVID‑19 pandemic, the molecular structure of SARS‑CoV‑2 and the mechanism via which SARS‑CoV‑2 enters the human body through ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were discussed in the present review, and the clinical manifestations of SARS‑CoV‑2 infection in the digestive system were also summarized. Finally, the expression characteristics of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the main target organs of the digestive system were described.

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March-2023
Volume 51 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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Copy and paste a formatted citation
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Spandidos Publications style
Zheng L, Zhang L, Zheng Y, An J, Wen G, Jin H and Tuo B: Digestive system infection by SARS‑CoV‑2: Entry mechanism, clinical symptoms and expression of major receptors (Review). Int J Mol Med 51: 19, 2023
APA
Zheng, L., Zhang, L., Zheng, Y., An, J., Wen, G., Jin, H., & Tuo, B. (2023). Digestive system infection by SARS‑CoV‑2: Entry mechanism, clinical symptoms and expression of major receptors (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 51, 19. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2023.5222
MLA
Zheng, L., Zhang, L., Zheng, Y., An, J., Wen, G., Jin, H., Tuo, B."Digestive system infection by SARS‑CoV‑2: Entry mechanism, clinical symptoms and expression of major receptors (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 51.3 (2023): 19.
Chicago
Zheng, L., Zhang, L., Zheng, Y., An, J., Wen, G., Jin, H., Tuo, B."Digestive system infection by SARS‑CoV‑2: Entry mechanism, clinical symptoms and expression of major receptors (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 51, no. 3 (2023): 19. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2023.5222