Detection of the mitochondrial and catalytically active alanine aminotransferase in human tissues and plasma

  • Authors:
    • Björn Glinghammar
    • Ingalill Rafter
    • Anna-Karin Lindström
    • Jesper J. Hedberg
    • Håkan B. Andersson
    • Per Lindblom
    • Anna-Lena Berg
    • Ian Cotgreave
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 1, 2009     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000173
  • Pages: 621-631
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Abstract

Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is used as a clinical marker of hepatotoxicity. Three forms of human ALT have been identified, ALT1 and 2 and an alternative splice variant of ALT2 (herein called ALT2_2). The standard ALT activity assay does not discriminate between ALT from different organs, or the isoforms measured in the plasma. Here, we show that ALT1 and 2 possess similar enzymatic activity for alanine and pyruvate but with different Km and kcat values, while recombinant ALT2_2 protein does not possess any enzymatic activity. Isolation of organelles from cultured human skeletal muscle cells, showed localisation of ALT2 to the mitochondrial fraction and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), but not to the cytosol. In human hepatocytes, on the other hand, ALT1 was only localised to the cytosol and ER, with no detection in mitochondria. ALT2 was not detected in cultured human hepatocytes, liver extract or tissue using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. The islet of Langerhans and cardiomyocytes were other examples of cells with high expression of catalytic ALT2. A clinical method for selective measurement of ALT1 and 2 in human plasma is described, and both ALT1 and 2 were immunoprecipitated from human plasma and structurally detected using Western blotting techniques.

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May 2009
Volume 23 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Glinghammar, B., Rafter, I., Lindström, A., Hedberg, J.J., Andersson, H.B., Lindblom, P. ... Cotgreave, I. (2009). Detection of the mitochondrial and catalytically active alanine aminotransferase in human tissues and plasma. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 23, 621-631. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000173
MLA
Glinghammar, B., Rafter, I., Lindström, A., Hedberg, J. J., Andersson, H. B., Lindblom, P., Berg, A., Cotgreave, I."Detection of the mitochondrial and catalytically active alanine aminotransferase in human tissues and plasma". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 23.5 (2009): 621-631.
Chicago
Glinghammar, B., Rafter, I., Lindström, A., Hedberg, J. J., Andersson, H. B., Lindblom, P., Berg, A., Cotgreave, I."Detection of the mitochondrial and catalytically active alanine aminotransferase in human tissues and plasma". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 23, no. 5 (2009): 621-631. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000173