DNA methylation of GHSR, GNG4, HOXD9 and SALL3 is a common epigenetic alteration in thymic carcinoma

  • Authors:
    • Reina Kishibuchi
    • Kazuya Kondo
    • Shiho Soejima
    • Mitsuhiro Tsuboi
    • Koichiro Kajiura
    • Yukikiyo Kawakami
    • Naoya Kawakita
    • Toru Sawada
    • Hiroaki Toba
    • Mitsuteru Yoshida
    • Hiromitsu Takizawa
    • Akira Tangoku
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 18, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4915
  • Pages: 315-326
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Abstract

Thymic epithelial tumors comprise thymoma, thymic carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus. Recent studies have revealed that the incidence of somatic non‑synonymous mutations is significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than in thymoma. However, limited information is currently available on epigenetic alterations in these types of cancer. In this study, we thus performed genome‑wide screening of aberrantly methylated CpG islands in thymoma and thymic carcinoma using Illumina HumanMethylation450 K BeadChip. We identified 92 CpG islands significantly hypermethylated in thymic carcinoma in relation to thymoma and selected G protein subunit gamma 4 (GNG4), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), homeobox D9 (HOXD9) and spalt like transcription factor 3 (SALL3), which are related to cancer. We examined the promoter methylation of 4 genes in 46 thymic epithelial tumors and 20 paired thymus tissues using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Promoter methylation was significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than in thymoma and revealed a high discrimination between thymic carcinoma and thymoma in all 4 genes. Promoter methylation was higher in thymic carcinoma than in the thymus. No significant differences were observed in the promoter methylation of GNG4, HOXD9, or SALL3 between thymoma and the thymus. The promoter methylation of the 4 genes was not significantly higher in advanced‑stage tumors than in early‑stage tumors in all thymic epithelial tumors. Among the 4 genes, relapse‑free survival was significantly worse in tumors with a higher DNA methylation than in those with a lower DNA methylation in all thymic epithelial tumors. Moreover, relapse‑free survival was significantly worse in thymomas with a higher DNA methylation of HOXD9 and SALL3 than in those with a lower DNA methylation. On the whole, the findings of this study indicated that the promoter methylation of cancer‑related genes was significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than in thymoma and the thymus. This is a common epigenetic alteration of high diagnostic value in thymic carcinoma and may be involved in the carcinogenesis of thymic carcinoma. However, epigenetic alterations in the 3 genes, apart from GHSR, are not involved in the tumorigenesis of thymoma.
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January 2020
Volume 56 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Kishibuchi, R., Kondo, K., Soejima, S., Tsuboi, M., Kajiura, K., Kawakami, Y. ... Tangoku, A. (2020). DNA methylation of GHSR, GNG4, HOXD9 and SALL3 is a common epigenetic alteration in thymic carcinoma. International Journal of Oncology, 56, 315-326. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4915
MLA
Kishibuchi, R., Kondo, K., Soejima, S., Tsuboi, M., Kajiura, K., Kawakami, Y., Kawakita, N., Sawada, T., Toba, H., Yoshida, M., Takizawa, H., Tangoku, A."DNA methylation of GHSR, GNG4, HOXD9 and SALL3 is a common epigenetic alteration in thymic carcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 56.1 (2020): 315-326.
Chicago
Kishibuchi, R., Kondo, K., Soejima, S., Tsuboi, M., Kajiura, K., Kawakami, Y., Kawakita, N., Sawada, T., Toba, H., Yoshida, M., Takizawa, H., Tangoku, A."DNA methylation of GHSR, GNG4, HOXD9 and SALL3 is a common epigenetic alteration in thymic carcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 56, no. 1 (2020): 315-326. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4915