Forskolin promotes vasculogenic mimicry and invasion via Notch‑1‑activated epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition in syncytiolization of trophoblast cells in choriocarcinoma
- Yan Xue
- Rong Sun
- Wei Zheng
- Lei Yang
- Ruifang An
Affiliations: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China
- Published online on: February 20, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.4997
Copyright: © Xue
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
Choriocarcinoma (CC) is characterized by earlier blood metastasis compared with other female genital tumors and a high incidence of massive hemorrhage. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is highly associated with metastasis, and syncytiotrophoblast is involved in the formation of VM in CC. Forskolin is a typical activator of the cAMP pathway, which is involved in the syncytiolization of trophoblastic cells. In the present study, to determine the effects and mechanism of forskolin on cell invasion and VM during syncytiolization in vitro and in vivo, JEG‑3 and JAR cell lines were treated with 100 µM forskolin for 48 h, and wound healing and invasion assays were used to verify cell migratory and invasive capacities. A 3D culture and tube formation assays were established to detect VM. Variation of morphology and markers of the epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed, and the role of the Notch signaling pathway was investigated in CC cells treated with forskolin. The results of the present study demonstrated that 100 µM forskolin induced syncytiolization of trophoblastic cells and enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of JEG‑3 and JAR cell lines. In addition, the capacity of VM was significantly increased, whereas tube formation ability was decreased by forskolin in vitro and in vivo compared with the respective control groups. The cellular morphology exhibited EMT during the syncytiolization process, which was further supported by the changes in EMT marker expression, including downregulation of E‑cadherin and cytokeratin and upregulation of N‑cadherin, vimentin and zinc finger E‑box‑binding homeobox 1. The Notch‑1 signaling pathway was activated to induce EMT in forskolin‑induced VM process in CC cells, and VM and EMT could be reversed by using the γ‑secretase inhibitor DAPT to block the Notch‑1 pathway. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that forskolin enhanced the capacity of VM formation and metastasis through Notch‑1‑activated EMT in the syncytiolization of trophoblastic cells.