Open Access

Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Dimitris J. Panagopoulos
    • Andreas Karabarbounis
    • Igor Yakymenko
    • George P. Chrousos
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 6, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5272
  • Article Number: 92
  • Copyright: © Panagopoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.

Related Articles

Journal Cover

November-2021
Volume 59 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
x
Spandidos Publications style
Panagopoulos DJ, Karabarbounis A, Yakymenko I and Chrousos GP: Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review). Int J Oncol 59: 92, 2021
APA
Panagopoulos, D.J., Karabarbounis, A., Yakymenko, I., & Chrousos, G.P. (2021). Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 59, 92. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5272
MLA
Panagopoulos, D. J., Karabarbounis, A., Yakymenko, I., Chrousos, G. P."Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 59.5 (2021): 92.
Chicago
Panagopoulos, D. J., Karabarbounis, A., Yakymenko, I., Chrousos, G. P."Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 59, no. 5 (2021): 92. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5272