Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review)
- Dimitris J. Panagopoulos
- Andreas Karabarbounis
- Igor Yakymenko
- George P. Chrousos
Affiliations: Laboratory of Health Physics, Radiobiology and Cytogenetics, Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Center for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 15310 Athens, Greece, Department of Physics, Section of Nuclear and Particle Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece, Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine, Choremeion Research Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
- Published online on: October 6, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5272
Copyright: © Panagopoulos
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.