Bispecific GPC3/PD‑1 CAR‑T cells for the treatment of HCC
Affiliations: Intervention and Cell Therapy Center, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P.R. China, Department of Scientific and Research, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P.R. China, Department of Infectious Disease, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P.R. China
- Published online on: March 10, 2023 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2023.5501
- Article Number: 53
Copyright: © Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Constantly stimulated by the tumor microenvironment (TME), programmed death 1 (PD‑1) is elevated, and it interacts with PD ligand 1 (PD‑L1), rendering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)‑T cells dysfunctional. Hence, CAR‑T cells immune to PD‑1‑induced immunosuppression were constructed to improve the function of CAR‑T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Double‑target CAR‑T cells, targeting glypican‑3 (GPC3) [a tumour-associated antigen (TAA)] and hindering PD‑1‑PD‑L1 binding, were established. The expression of GPC3, PD‑L1, and inhibitory receptors was measured using flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity, cytokine release, and differentiation level of CAR‑T cells were determined using lactate dehydrogenase release assay, enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. HCC cells were targeted and eliminated by double‑target CAR‑T cells. These double‑target CAR‑T cells limit PD‑1‑PD‑L1 binding and sustain cytotoxicity to PD‑L1+ HCC cells. The relatively low IR expression and differentiation level in double‑target CAR‑T cells in tumour tissues induced tumour‑suppression and extended survival in PD‑L1+ HCC TX models, as opposed to their single‑target counterparts. The results of the present study suggested that the newly constructed double‑target CAR‑T cells exhibit stronger tumour‑suppressing effects in HCC than their single‑target counterparts, which are common, suggesting the potential of strengthening CAR‑T cell activity in HCC treatment.