FGF signaling network in the gastrointestinal tract (Review)
- Masuko Katoh
- Masaru Katoh
Published online on: July 1, 2006
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are transduced through FGF receptors (FGFRs) and FRS2/FRS3- SHP2 (PTPN11)-GRB2 docking protein complex to SOS-RAS-RAF-MAPKK-MAPK signaling cascade and GAB1/GAB2-PI3K-PDK-AKT/aPKC signaling cascade. The RAS≈ MAPK signaling cascade is implicated in cell growth and differentiation, the PI3K≈AKT signaling cascade in cell survival and cell fate determination, and the PI3K≈aPKC signaling cascade in cell polarity control. FGF18, FGF20 and SPRY4 are potent targets of the canonical WNT signaling pathway in the gastrointestinal tract. SPRY4 is the FGF signaling inhibitor functioning as negative feedback apparatus for the WNT/FGF-dependent epithelial proliferation. Recombinant FGF7 and FGF20 proteins are applicable for treatment of chemotherapy/radiation-induced mucosal injury, while recombinant FGF2 protein and FGF4 expression vector are applicable for therapeutic angiogenesis. Helicobacter pylori, a causative pathogen for peptic ulcer diseases, chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, injects bacterial proteins into gastric epithelial cells by using Type IV secretion system, which leads to FGF signaling activation through FGF2 upregulation as well as CagA-dependent SHP2 activation. FGFR2 gene is preferentially amplified and overexpressed in diffuse-type gastric cancer. PD173074 is a small-molecule inhibitor for FGFR, while RO4396686 and SU6668 are small-molecule inhibitors for FGFR and other tyrosine kinases. Cocktail therapy using multiple protein kinase inhibitors could enhance the therapeutic effects for gastrointestinal cancer through the reduction of recurrence associated with somatic mutations of drug-target genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of genes encoding FGF signaling molecules will be identified as novel risk factors of gastrointestinal cancer. Personalized prevention and personalized medicine based on the combination of genetic screening and novel therapeutic agents could dramatically improve the prognosis of cancer patients.