Dysregulation of the cell survival/anti-apoptotic NF-κB pathway by the novel humanized BM-ca anti-CD20 mAb: Implication in chemosensitization
Affiliations: Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología, Hospital de Infectología CMN La Raza IMSS, México City, México. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Published online on: December 1, 2009 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo_00000446
- Pages: 1289-1296
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Treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory low grade follicular B-NHL lymphoma with rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20 mAb) has resulted in ≈50% response rate. The mechanism underlying the failure of rituximab to affect the remaining 50% of the patients is not clear, though their tumors express CD20. The in vivo effector functions of rituximab include ADCC, CDC and seldom apoptosis. In addition, we have reported that rituximab signals the cells and inhibits several intracellular cell survival pathways that are responsible for the immuno and chemo-sensitizing effects of rituximab on resistant B-NHL cell lines. The objective of this study was to develop novel and fully humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies with enhanced effector functions and molecular signaling that may potentiate their therapeutic efficacy. Novel humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies were derived from a chimerized form of murine anti-CD20 1K11791, shown to exert a more potent ADCC, CDC and apoptotic activities compared to rituximab. A representative humanized monoclonal antibody, BM-ca was used to examine its biological effect and molecular signaling using Ramos B-NHL cell line as a model. The studies were also performed in parallel with rituximab treatment for comparison. Ramos cells were treated with various concentrations of BM-ca monoclonal antibody. Inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting cell signal perturbations must have occurred. Compared to untreated cells, treatment with BM-ca inhibited both the constitutively activated NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, as assessed by inhibition of both phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα and phospho-p38, respectively, but not the unphosphorylated forms. BM-ca significantly induced the expression of the metastasis suppressor and immune surveillance cancer gene product, Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). These alterations resulted in inhibition of anti-apoptotic gene products and sensitized Ramos cells to apoptosis by CDDP. In comparison with rituximab, BM-ca showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the above analyses. These findings demonstrate that BM-ca triggers CD20 expressing B-NHL cells resulting in a significant alteration of several gene products that regulate cell growth and chemoresistance.