Open Access

Low RAB6C expression is a predictor of tamoxifen benefit in estrogen receptor‑positive/progesterone receptor‑negative breast cancer

  • Authors:
    • Helena Fohlin
    • Tove Bekkhus
    • Josefine Sandström
    • Tommy  Fornander
    • Bo Nordenskjöld
    • John Carstensen
    • Olle Stål
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 9, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2014
  • Pages: 415-420
  • Copyright: © Fohlin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Over the last few decades, improved and more individualized treatment has contributed to the increased survival rate of patients with breast cancer. However, certain patients may receive excessive treatment resulting in undesired side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that systemically untreated patients with estrogen receptor (ER)‑positive/progesterone receptor (PR)‑negative tumors with high Ras‑related protein Rab‑6C (RAB6C) expression levels (RAB6C+) had prolonged distant recurrence‑free survival compared with that of patients exhibiting low RAB6C (RAB6C‑)‑expressing tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether RAB6C predicts the effectiveness of tamoxifen treatment. The present study used a dataset comprising 486 female patients with ER+ tumors from a randomized study conducted by the Stockholm Breast Cancer Study Group between November 1976 and August 1990. The patients were considered as low‑risk if their tumor size was ≤30 mm and their lymph node status was negative. Patients were followed up until distant recurrence, mortality or when 25 years after randomization was achieved, whichever occurred first. For patients with ER+/PR‑/RAB6C+ tumors, prolonged distant recurrence‑free survival could not be observed if the patients were treated with tamoxifen [hazard ratio (HR), 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69‑4.79; P=0.23], whereas patients with ER+/PR‑/RAB6C‑ tumors had 75% reduced distant recurrence risk (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09‑0.70; P=0.008). In the ER+/PR+ subgroup, patients with RAB6C‑ and RAB6C+ tumors benefited from tamoxifen treatment, though it was most evident in the RAB6C+ group (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13‑0.58; P=0.001). The results of the present study indicated that, for patients with ER+/PR‑ tumors, those with low RAB6C expression benefited from tamoxifen treatment, whereas no benefit was observed in patients with high RAB6C levels.

Introduction

Breast cancer survival has increased continuously during the last decades, and the 5-year survival rate in Sweden is almost 90% (1,2). Improved and more individualized treatment has contributed to this progress. However, a few patients may be overtreated, possibly with undesired side effects. The majority of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors receive endocrine therapy. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that patients with ER+/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive tumors clearly did benefit from tamoxifen, while the long-term benefit was lower for those with ER+/PR- tumors (3). Nevertheless, ER+/PR- tumors are a heterogeneous group, and among them there may be subgroups of patients that do benefit from tamoxifen. Therefore, one subject for further study was the identification of such subgroups.

The ER+/PR- subgroup is considered to have a more aggressive progression compared with that of the ER+/PR+ subgroup, and according to the St. Gallen criteria, patients with ER+/PR- tumors are recommended chemotherapy as additional treatment, despite the fact that in this subgroup certain patients may have good prognosis without systemic treatment. Experimental studies have shown that the Ras-related protein RAB6C (RAB6C) inhibits proliferation, invasion and metastasis, suggesting that it acts as a tumor suppressor (4). RAB6C also interacts with p53, which is frequently mutated in breast cancer (5-7). In a concurrent study, it was revealed that systemically untreated patients with ER+/PR- tumors and high RAB6C expression (RAB6C+) had prolonged distant recurrence-free survival compared with that of patients with low RAB6C expression (RAB6C-) (26). The aim of the present study was to investigate if RAB6C has a treatment predictive value for tamoxifen. For this purpose, data for 486 patients from a randomized clinical trial were used.

Patients and methods

Patients

Patients with operable invasive breast cancer were entered in a previous study of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy conducted by the Stockholm Breast Cancer Study Group (8). Postmenopausal women younger than 70 years of age were randomly administered tamoxifen postoperatively at a dose of 40 mg per day compared with no adjuvant endocrine therapy. Between November 1976 and June 1990, 2,738 patients were recruited into the trial. Among them, 1,780 patients (65%) with no lymph node metastases and a tumor diameter ≤30 mm (established by histological examination) were classified as ‘low risk’ and did not receive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this group, 432 patients were treated with breast conserving surgery, including axillary dissection plus radiation to the breast (50 Gy/5 weeks). The remaining 1,348 patients had a modified radical mastectomy and no radiotherapy. Paraffin blocks from 912 low-risk patients were used for the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs). Of these, 619 tumors were ER+, whereof 591 also had data on PR status (3). RAB6C expression could be evaluated for 486 cases among these tumors (Fig. 1).

Hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, grade and RAB6C expression

Data on ER, PR and HER2 was available from previous studies. The status of ER and PR was assessed retrospectively with immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the VENTANA® automated slide stainer (Ventana Medical Systems, Inc.). The primary monoclonal antibodies used were CONFIRM™ mouse anti-ER antibody (clone 6F11) and CONFIRM™ mouse anti-PR antibody (clone 16) (Ventana Medical Systems, Inc.). The cut-off level was set to 10% positively stained tumor cells (9). HER2 was analyzed with IHC as previously described (10). The Nottingham Histological Grade (NHG) was analyzed retrospectively by the same investigator for all tumor samples.

The protein expression of RAB6C was analyzed with IHC, and the staining pattern was evaluated independently by two investigators (JS and TB). The polyclonal rabbit antibody ab200396 (Abcam) was used. The intensity of RAB6C in the nucleus was analyzed and scored as 0, 1, 2 or 3. If the nuclei had an intensity ≥2, the tumor was considered to have high expression of RAB6C (RAB6C+). Otherwise, it was considered to have low RAB6C expression (RAB6C-).

Ethics approval and patient consent to participate

The present study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval for the use of tumor material was approved by the local Ethical Committee at the Karolinska University Hospital (approval no. KI 97-451 with amendments 030201 and 171027). According to the approval, informed consent from the patients was not required.

Statistical analysis

To compare the association between RAB6C and clinical characteristics, the Pearson's χ2 test was applied. Cumulative distant recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The end-point was defined as the first distant recurrence from the patient's primary breast cancer as described by Rutqvist and Johansson (8). Three patients had succumbed to breast cancer but no date of distant recurrence was registered. For these patients, the date of death was used as an event of distant recurrence. The remaining patients were followed up until they had a distant recurrence or succumbed, or for 25 years after randomization, whichever occurred first. Patients were censored at the last follow-up or at mortality due to causes other than breast cancer.

The multivariable analyses with subgroups based on RAB6C status included age, tumor size, HER2, NHG, tamoxifen and the interaction term ‘RAB6C x tamoxifen’. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CΙs) were estimated using the Cox's proportional hazards model. To test whether there is an interaction between RAB6C and tamoxifen, the Likelihood ratio χ2 test was applied. The statistical analyses were performed with Stata/SE 13.1 (StataCorp LP).

Results

Patients with ER+ tumors did benefit from tamoxifen (HR=0.47, 95% CI=0.31-0.71; P<0.001), which was more evident in patients with ER+/PR+ tumors (HR=0.39, 95% CI=0.23-0.67; P=0.001) than in those with ER+/PR- tumors (HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.34-1.25; P=0.19). However, dividing the ER+/PR- tumors by RAB6C status showed that, for those with low RAB6C expression levels, the tamoxifen effect on disease (HR=0.25, 95% CI=0.09-0.70; P=0.008) was comparable to that in patients with ER+/PR+ tumors (Fig. 2). For patients with ER+/PR-/RAB6C+ tumors, prolonged distant recurrence-free survival was not observed if they were treated with tamoxifen (HR=1.82, 95% CI=0.69-4.79; P=0.23). The different effect of the treatment between the RAB6C+ and RAB6C- groups was indicated by a statistically significant interaction (P=0.004; Table I). In the ER+/PR+ subgroup, RAB6C expression did not have a significant influence on benefit from tamoxifen. Both patients with RAB6C- tumors (HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.29-1.37; P=0.24) and RAB6C+ tumors (HR=0.27, 95% CI=0.13-0.58; P=0.001) did benefit from tamoxifen, although it was statistically significant only among those with RAB6C+ tumors. Of note, the tamoxifen-treated patients with ER+/PR+/RAB6C+ or ER+/PR-/RAB6C- tumors had excellent distant recurrence-free survival, with a 25-year cumulative proportion of 87% (95% CI=75-93%) and 88% (95% CI=72-95%), respectively. Together, these patients represent 60% of all patients with ER+ disease treated with tamoxifen.

Table I

Univariable analysis of distant recurrence rates for tamoxifen-treated patients compared with the control group, stratified by hormonal receptor status.

Table I

Univariable analysis of distant recurrence rates for tamoxifen-treated patients compared with the control group, stratified by hormonal receptor status.

 Number of patients/events   
SubgroupTAM+TAM-HR (95% CI) TAM+ vs. TAM-P-valueP for interaction
ER+259/35227/610.47 (0.3-0.71)<0.001 
ER+/PR+177/20143/390.39 (0.23-0.67)0.0010.20
ER+/PR-82/1584/220.65 (0.34-1.25)0.19 
ER+/PR+/RAB6C+111/1075/220.27 (0.13-0.58)0.0010.14
ER+/PR+/RAB6C-66/1068/170.63 (0.29-1.37)0.24 
ER+/PR-/RAB6C+37/1041/71.82 (0.69-4.79)0.230.004
ER+/PR-/RAB6C-45/543/150.25 (0.09-0.70)0.008 

[i] The control group is the referent (hazard ratio, 1) in each subgroup analysis. ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; RAB6C, Ras-Related protein Rab-6C.

Established clinical factors were similarly distributed in the tamoxifen-treated and control groups (Table SI). In multivariable analyses divided by PR status and adjusting for age, tumor size, HER2 status and NHG, the results were similar to those obtained in univariable analyses, indicating that the treatment effect of tamoxifen on disease depending on the RAB6C expression was independent of these factors (Tables I and II). In summary, the analyses revealed that it was favorable to treat patients with ER+/PR+ tumors regardless of RAB6C expression status. In contrast to high RAB6C expression, low RAB6C expression predicted benefit from tamoxifen for patients with ER+/PR- tumors.

Table II

Multivariablea analysis of distant recurrence rates for tamoxifen-treated patients compared with the control group, stratified by hormonal receptor status.

Table II

Multivariablea analysis of distant recurrence rates for tamoxifen-treated patients compared with the control group, stratified by hormonal receptor status.

 Number of patients/events  LR interaction term RAB6C x TAM
SubgroupTAM+TAM-HR (95% CI) TAM+ vs. TAM-P-valueχ2 valueP-value
ER+/PR+/RAB6C+88/769/200.17 (0.07-0.42)<0.0014.630.03
ER+/PR+/RAB6C-58/1055/150.61 (0.27-1.37)0.23  
ER+/PR-/RAB6C+32/732/42.18 (0.61-7.78)0.2310.170.001
ER+/PR-/RAB6C-40/440/150.19 (0.06-0.57)0.003  

[i] The control group is the referent (hazard ratio, 1) in each subgroup analysis. aThe analysis includes age, tumor size, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, Nottingham Histologic Grade, RAB6C, TAM and the interaction term ‘RAB6C x TAM’. RAB6C, Ras-related protein Rab-6C; TAM, tamoxifen; LR, Likelihood ratio; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.

Discussion

The hormone receptors ER and PR are important markers for breast cancer treatment. While tumors that are positive for both receptors are associated with prolonged survival when patients are treated with endocrine therapy, ER+/PR- tumors are considered to have a more aggressive phenotype (11). Patients with this tumor subtype are mostly treated with both endocrine therapy and chemotherapy, but there are probably subgroups of patients with these tumors who have high survival rates with more limited treatment. In a concurrent study, the results indicated that RAB6C may identify such patients (26). The present study further investigated the role of RAB6C in a retrospective study based on clinical data with patients randomized to be treated with endocrine therapy (tamoxifen) or included in the control group. Among patients with ER+/PR- tumors, tamoxifen treatment showed different effects depending on RAB6C expression, and patients with low RAB6C expression did benefit from tamoxifen. For patients with ER+/PR+ tumors, there was no statistically significant difference in treatment effect on RAB6C+ or RAB6C- disease.

The relevance of PR for tamoxifen benefit has been discussed in various studies (3,12-16). Several of them concluded that patients with ER+/PR+ tumors did benefit from tamoxifen treatment, whilst patients with ER+/PR- tumors benefit less. There is a need to identify patients with ER+/PR- tumors that do benefit from tamoxifen. The results of the present study confirmed that patients with ER+/PR+ tumors benefit from tamoxifen, whereas for those with ER+/PR- tumors, the effect depends on RAB6C status. Potential physical interactions between RAB6C and the hormone receptors need to be evaluated in further studies. A number of samples from the original cohort was missing on the TMAs. However, in a previous study, the results showed no bias in the missing cases with respect to tumor size, ER status or tamoxifen treatment (17).

The knowledge of RAB6C is limited, although it is known to be a member of the RAB6 family and consists of a single exon. RAB6C shares 97% identity with the RAB6A' transcript, leading to the hypothesis that RAB6C was generated by retrotransposition of a fully processed RAB6A' mRNA, and encodes a functional protein different from that coded by RAB6A' (18). RAB6C is most highly expressed in brain, prostate, testis, breast and cervical tissues, and appears to participate not only in breast cancer (18,19). In cervical cancer, RAB6C promoter methylation analysis has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between malignant, premalignant and normal tissue, while in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, patients with low RAB6C expression levels had poorer survival times than those with high RAB6C expression (20,21). This is also in line with our study on the prognostic value of RAB6C in breast cancer (26). Furthermore, the long non-protein coding RAB6C antisense RNA 1 (RAB6C-AS1) is frequently overexpressed in gastric and breast cancer, and often deleted in prostate and pancreatic cancer and in brain tumors. Its gene is located in the same chromosomal region as RAB6C and both genes are often co-expressed (22). Results from previous experimental studies on breast cancer cell lines indicated that RAB6C has properties as a tumor suppressor with the capability to inhibit proliferation, invasion and metastasis, and promote apoptosis (4,18). It has also been suggested that RAB6C may increase sensitivity to various drugs (23-25). The present study investigated the predictive value of RAB6C in relation to tamoxifen therapy with data from a randomized clinical study. For untreated control patients with ER+/PR- tumors, those with tumors expressing low RAB6C levels had a higher recurrence rate than untreated patients with tumors expressing high RAB6C levels. A higher number of events in the control group with low RAB6C expression increased the probability of observing differences between treated and untreated patients. Therefore, the data showing a difference in benefit from tamoxifen therapy in patients with ER+/PR- tumors depending on the RAB6C expression, should be interpreted with care. Additional data are needed before clinical practice may be influenced. For patients with ER+/PR- tumors, more tailored therapy is required, and the results of the present study may contribute to the identification of clinically relevant subgroups.

Supplementary Material

Table SI. Patient characteristics.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Mrs. Ulla Johansson (Regional Cancer Center of Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden) for updating the database and Mrs Birgitta Holmlund (Department of Oncology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden) for technical assistance. The authors would also like to thank Dr Dennis Sgroi (Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA USA) for providing information on tumor grading.

Funding

The present study was supported by grants from the Swedish Cancer Society (grant no. 17-0479), The Cancer Research Foundation of Radiumhemmet, Cancer Society in Stockholm and King Gustav V Jubilee Clinical Research Foundation (grant no. 181093), Onkologiska klinikerna i Linköpings forskningsfond (grant no. 2016-06-21), ALF grants Region Östergötland (grant no. LIO-795201) and County Council of Östergötland (grant no. LIO-625491). The funders did not have any role in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the present study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors' contributions

HF, JC and OS conceived the study and participated in the study design and coordination. TF and BN provided the study materials, collected clinical follow-up data and hormone receptor data from patients and performed clinical interpretations. TB and JS performed the laboratory experiments and scored RAB6C. HF performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. HF, JC, OS, TB, JS, BN and TF interpreted the results, provided critical revision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and patient consent to participate

The present study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval for the use of tumor material was approved by the local Ethical Committee at the Karolinska University Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) (approval no. KI 97-451 with amendments 030201 and 171027). According to the approval, informed consent from the patients was not required.

Patient consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

1 

Sant M, Chirlaque Lopez MD, Agresti R, Sánchez Pérez MJ, Holleczek B, Bielska-Lasota M, Dimitrova N, Innos K, Katalinic A, Langseth H, et al: Survival of women with cancers of breast and genital organs in Europe 1999-2007: Results of the EUROCARE-5 study. Eur J Cancer. 51:2191–2205. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

2 

Fredholm H, Magnusson K, Lindström LS, Garmo H, Fält SE, Lindman H, Bergh J, Holmberg L, Pontén F, Frisell J and Fredriksson I: Long-term outcome in young women with breast cancer: A population-based study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 160:131–143. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

3 

Nordenskjöld A, Fohlin H, Fornander T, Löfdahl B, Skoog L and Stål O: Progesterone receptor positivity is a predictor of long-term benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 160:313–322. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

4 

Gan L, Zuo G, Wang T, Min J, Wang Y, Wang Y and Lv G: Expression of WTH3 in breast cancer tissue and the effects on the biological behavior of breast cancer cells. Exp Ther Med. 10:154–158. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

5 

Cancer Genome Atlas Network: Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 490: 61-70, 2012.

6 

Haverty PM, Fridlyand J, Li L, Getz G, Beroukhim R, Lohr S, Wu TD, Cavet G, Zhang Z and Chant J: High-resolution genomic and expression analyses of copy number alterations in breast tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 47:530–542. 2008.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

7 

Tian K, Wang Y and Xu H: WTH3 is a direct target of the p53 protein. Br J Cancer. 96:1579–1586. 2007.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

8 

Rutqvist LE and Johansson H: Stockholm Breast Cancer Study Group: Long-term follow-up of the randomized Stockholm trial on adjuvant tamoxifen among postmenopausal patients with early stage breast cancer. Acta Oncol. 46:133–145. 2007.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

9 

Khoshnoud MR, Löfdahl B, Fohlin H, Fornander T, Stål O, Skoog L, Bergh J and Nordenskjöld B: Immunohistochemistry compared to cytosol assays for determination of estrogen receptor and prediction of the long-term effect of adjuvant tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 126:421–430. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

10 

Jerevall PL, Jansson A, Fornander T, Skoog L, Nordenskjöld B and Stål O: Predictive relevance of HOXB13 protein expression for tamoxifen benefit in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 12(R53)2010.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

11 

Thakkar JP and Mehta DG: A review of an unfavorable subset of breast cancer: Estrogen receptor positive progesterone receptor negative. Oncologist. 16:276–285. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

12 

Dowsett M, Houghton J, Iden C, Salter J, Farndon J, A'Hern R, Sainsbury R and Baum M: Benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in primary breast cancer patients according oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, EGF receptor and HER2 status. Ann Oncol. 17:818–826. 2006.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

13 

Bartlett JM, Brookes CL, Robson T, van de Velde CJ, Billingham LJ, Campbell FM, Grant M, Hasenburg A, Hille ET, Kay C, et al: Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor as predictive biomarkers of response to endocrine therapy: A prospectively powered pathology study in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane adjuvant multinational trial. J Clin Oncol. 29:1531–1538. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

14 

Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), Davies C, Godwin J, Gray R, Clarke M, Cutter D, Darby S, McGale P, Pan HC, Taylor C, et al: Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: Patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 378: 771-784, 2011.

15 

Bardou VJ, Arpino G, Elledge RM, Osborne CK and Clark GM: Progesterone receptor status significantly improves outcome prediction over estrogen receptor status alone for adjuvant endocrine therapy in two large breast cancer databases. J Clin Oncol. 21:1973–1979. 2003.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

16 

Viale G, Regan MM, Maiorano E, Mastropasqua MG, Dell'Orto P, Rasmussen BB, Raffoul J, Neven P, Orosz Z, Braye S, et al: Prognostic and predictive value of centrally reviewed expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in a randomized trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal early breast cancer: BIG 1-98. J Clin Oncol. 25:3846–3852. 2007.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

17 

Bostner J, Skoog L, Fornander T, Nordenskjöld B and Stål O: Estrogen receptor-alpha phosphorylation at serine 305, nuclear p21-activated kinase 1 expression, and response to tamoxifen in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 16:1624–1633. 2010.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

18 

Young J, Ménétrey J and Goud B: RAB6C is a retrogene that encodes a centrosomal protein involved in cell cycle progression. J Mol Biol. 397:69–88. 2010.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

19 

Uhlén M, Fagerberg L, Hallström BM, Lindskog C, Oksvold P, Mardinoglu A, Sivertsson Å, Kampf C, Sjöstedt E, Asplund A, et al: Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome. Science. 347(1260419)2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

20 

Bhat S, Kabekkodu SP, Varghese VK, Chakrabarty S, Mallya SP, Rotti H, Pandey D, Kushtagi P and Satyamoorthy K: Aberrant gene-specific DNA methylation signature analysis in cervical cancer. Tumour Biol. 39(1010428317694573)2017.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

21 

Bhat S, Kabekkodu SP, Jayaprakash C, Radhakrishnan R, Ray S and Satyamoorthy K: Gene promoter-associated CpG island hypermethylation in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Virchows Arch. 470:445–454. 2017.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

22 

Salavaty A, Motlagh FM, Barabadi M, Cheshomi H, Esmatabadi MJD, Shahmoradi M and Soleimanpour-Lichaei HR: Potential role of RAB6C-AS1 long noncoding RNA in different cancers. J Cell Physiol. 234:891–903. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

23 

Tian K, Wang Y, Huang Y, Sun B, Li Y and Xu H: Methylation of WTH3, a possible drug resistant gene, inhibits p53 regulated expression. BMC Cancer. 8(327)2008.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

24 

Shan J, Mason JM, Yuan L, Barcia M, Porti D, Calabro A, Budman D, Vinciguerra V and Xu H: Rab6c, a new member of the rab gene family, is involved in drug resistance in MCF7/AdrR cells. Gene. 257:67–75. 2000.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

25 

Shan J, Yuan L, Budman DR and Xu HP: WTH3, a new member of the Rab6 gene family, and multidrug resistance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1589:112–123. 2002.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

26 

Fohlin H, Bekkhus T, Sandström J, Fornander T, Nordenskjöld B, Carstensen J and Stål O: RAB6C is an independent prognostic factor of estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. Oncol Lett. 19:52–60. 2020.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

Related Articles

Journal Cover

May 2020
Volume 12 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 2049-9450
Online ISSN:2049-9469

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
x
APA
Fohlin, H., Bekkhus, T., Sandström, J., Fornander, T., Nordenskjöld, B., Carstensen, J., & Stål, O. (2020). Low RAB6C expression is a predictor of tamoxifen benefit in estrogen receptor‑positive/progesterone receptor‑negative breast cancer. Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 12, 415-420. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2014
MLA
Fohlin, H., Bekkhus, T., Sandström, J., Fornander, T., Nordenskjöld, B., Carstensen, J., Stål, O."Low RAB6C expression is a predictor of tamoxifen benefit in estrogen receptor‑positive/progesterone receptor‑negative breast cancer". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 12.5 (2020): 415-420.
Chicago
Fohlin, H., Bekkhus, T., Sandström, J., Fornander, T., Nordenskjöld, B., Carstensen, J., Stål, O."Low RAB6C expression is a predictor of tamoxifen benefit in estrogen receptor‑positive/progesterone receptor‑negative breast cancer". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 12, no. 5 (2020): 415-420. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2014