A rare case of hairy cell leukemia with co‑expression of CD5 and cyclin D1: A diagnostic pitfall
- Luting Zhou
- Haimin Xu
- Jun Zhou
- Binshen Ouyang
- Chaofu Wang
Affiliations: Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, P.R. China
- Published online on: September 22, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2142
Copyright: © Zhou
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an uncommon chronic B‑cell lymphoproliferative disease with an indolent course. It mainly occurs in elderly men, although abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare. HCL cells are mostly found in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen and typically express CD11c, CD20, CD25 and CD103. We present a case of HCL with a novel immunophenotype. A 48‑year‑old woman presented with pancytopenia and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was HCL with lymph node infiltration. Unlike previously described HCL cases, the current case showed strong expression of CD5 and cyclin D1 in the lymph nodes. The patient underwent cladribine chemotherapy, and the leukocyte count increased during and after treatment. The 8‑month follow‑up revealed that she had recovered well. This case highlights the distinctive immunophenotype of HCL infiltrating the lymph nodes and the potential misdiagnosis of HCL as mantle cell lymphoma. It also adds to our limited understanding of HCL.