Anterior mediastinal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with elevated AFP: A case report and review
- Justin Komisarof
- Haoming Qiu
- Moises J. Velez
- Deborah Mulford
Affiliations: Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
- Published online on: December 22, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2196
Copyright: © Komisarof
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Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and aggressive cancer that typically presents in the lung. The current case report describes a 56 year old male who presented to Strong Memorial Hospital with progressive dyspnea and was revealed to have a large anterior mediastinal tumor with metastases to axillary, hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. Tumor marker results revealed an elevated plasma level of α‑fetoprotein (AFP), which initially pointed towards a diagnosis of teratoma, but the tumor stained positive for neuroendocrine markers CD56, chromogranin, and synaptophysin on biopsy, consistent with LCNEC. AFP‑positive tumor cells were identified, and no alternate cause for the elevated AFP was identified. The patient underwent genetic testing revealing the tumor to be ALK, ROS1, KRAS, BRAF and EGFR wild type. The patient received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin (80 mg/m2) and etoposide (100 mg/m2) and then radiation with an initial minor response. The patients course was complicated by the development of superior vena cava syndrome requiring emergency stenting. The results of the current case suggest that AFP may be worthy of further exploration as a potential tumor marker in LCNEC.