Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Pathogenesis, prognostic factors and genetic landscape (Review)
- Abdul-Mohsen G. Alhejaily
- Omar Alhuzim
- Yazeed Alwelaie
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh Second Health Cluster, Riyadh 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Obesity, Endocrine and Metabolism Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh Second Health Cluster, Riyadh 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Department of Pathology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh Second Health Cluster, Riyadh 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
- Published online on: November 2, 2023 https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2023.2695
Copyright: © Alhejaily
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare and aggressive form of thyroid malignancy, presenting significant challenges in diagnosis and treatment. The rarity of this cancer and its aggressive nature make an accurate diagnosis difficult, requiring a multidisciplinary approach and various imaging techniques. Treatment involves a personalized multimodal approach, including surgery, adjuvant therapies and risk stratification. Prognostic factors such as age, tumor characteristics and genetic alterations play a crucial role in determining patient outcomes. Despite advancements, gaps remain in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease and establishing standardized treatment guidelines. Further research, collaborative efforts and multicenter studies are necessary to improve diagnostic accuracy, develop targeted therapies and biomarkers, and enhance the long‑term management. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of ATC, discussing its clinical manifestations, diagnostic approaches, treatment options, prognostic factors and genetic landscape.