1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits osteogenic differentiation through activating β‑catenin signaling via downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2
- Xiaofeng Han
- Naifeng Zhu
- Yihan Wang
- Guangqi Cheng
Affiliations: Department of Orthopedics, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, P.R. China
- Published online on: October 20, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11619
Copyright: © Han
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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The present study explored whether bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathways were involved in the 1,25(OH)2D3‑induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, the expression levels of ossification markers, including BMP2, Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Msh homeobox 2 (Msx2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN), and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as the calcified area observed by Alizarin red‑S staining, were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the DNA methylation and histone modification of BMP2, while an immunoprecipitation (IP) assay was performed to assess the crosstalk between Smad1 and disheveled‑1 (Dvl‑1) proteins. It was observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly decreased the expression levels of BMP2, Runx2, Msx2, OPN and OCN, and reduced ALP activity and the calcified area in BMSCs, whereas these effects were rescued by BMP2 overexpression. ChIP assay revealed that BMSCs treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited a significant increase in H3K9me2 level and a decrease in the acetylation of histone H3 at the same BMP2 promoter region. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment promoted the nuclear accumulation of β‑catenin by downregulating BMP2. Furthermore, the β‑catenin signaling inhibitor XAV‑939 weakened the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, knockdown of β‑catenin rescued the attenuation in Dvl‑1 and Smad1 interaction caused by 1,25(OH)2D3. Overexpression of Smad1 also reversed the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the current study demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast‑like cells by inactivating BMP2 and activating Wnt/β‑catenin signaling.