Effects of American wild ginseng and Korean cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture extracts on the regulation of C2C12 myoblasts differentiation through AMPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway
- Ji Hye Hwang
- Seok Yong Kang
- Hyo Won Jung
Affiliations: Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Republic of Korea, Korean Medicine R&D Center, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang 38066, Republic of Korea, Department of Herbology, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang 38066, Republic of Korea
- Published online on: April 6, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12708
Copyright: © Hwang
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
Targeting impaired myogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis offers a potential alternative strategy for balancing energy to fight muscle disorders such as sarcopenia. In traditional Korean medicine, it is believed that the herb wild ginseng can help restore energy to the elderly. The present study investigated whether American wild ginseng pharmacopuncture (AWGP) and Korean cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture (KCWGP) regulate energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 mouse myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes using horse serum for 5 days. An MTT colorimetric assay verified cell viability. AWGP, KCWGP (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/ml), or metformin (2.5 mM) for reference were used to treat the C2C12 myotubes. The expressions of differentiation and mitochondrial biogenetic factors were measured by western blotting in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment of C2C12 cells stimulated with AWGP and KCWGP at a concentration of 10 mg/ml did not affect cell viability. AWGP and KCWGP treatments resulted in significant increases in the myogenesis proteins, myosin heavy chain, myostatin, myoblast determination protein 1 and myogenin, as well as increases to the biogenic regulatory factors, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ coactivator‑1‑α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A and Sirtuin 1, in the myotubes through AMPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway activation. These results suggest that AWGP and KCWGP may be beneficial to muscle function by improving muscle differentiation and energy metabolism.