Open Access

Clinicopathological and mutational differences between tumors with multiple metastases and single lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

  • Authors:
    • Yuka Yanai
    • Takuo Hayashi
    • Yoichi Akazawa
    • Noboru Yatagai
    • Sho Tsuyama
    • Takashi Yao
    • Tsuyoshi Saito
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 14, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11627
  • Pages: 541-550
  • Copyright: © Yanai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Cancer metastasis, particularly multiple metastatic cancer, is a significant event that affects patient prognosis. However, single metastasis can be treated by partial resection, although the clinicopathological and molecular profile of single lung metastasis has not been thoroughly elucidated. The present study examined tumor heterogeneity by comparing the mutation status between primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and corresponding metastatic lesions to identify prognostic factors associated with single lung metastasis and multiple metastases. The present study enrolled 31 cases of CRC; 20 cases with multiple metastases and 11 cases with single lung metastasis. Clinicopathologically, all cases with multiple metastases were tubular adenocarcinoma, and 3/11 cases with single metastasis were mucinous adenocarcinoma originating from the left side, the remaining 8 cases were tubular adenocarcinoma from the left side. CRC cases with multiple metastases exhibited more frequent vascular invasion, but not lymphatic invasion, than those with single lung metastasis. Furthermore, CRC with multiple metastases was associated with strong tumor budding (P=0.04). Patients with CRC with multiple metastases had lower recurrence‑free survival rates compared with those with single lung metastasis (P=0.02). However, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of overall survival rates. A next‑generation sequencing cancer hotspot panel was used to analyze a heterochronous multiple metastases case, including brain metastasis. Sanger sequencing, immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability were examined for all 31 cases to reveal the molecular features. KRAS and TP53 mutation signatures were largely preserved throughout the metastatic events. TP53/APC mutations and overexpression of p53 appeared to be associated with the presence of lymphovascular invasion and strong tumor budding, respectively, although these differences were not statistically significant. Early relapses in patients with CRC could be a sign for eventual multiple metastases, although these may not affect the overall survival of patients with CRC. Considerable mutational changes were seemingly rare during metastatic events in patients with CRC.

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July 2020
Volume 20 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

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APA
Yanai, Y., Hayashi, T., Akazawa, Y., Yatagai, N., Tsuyama, S., Yao, T., & Saito, T. (2020). Clinicopathological and mutational differences between tumors with multiple metastases and single lung metastasis in colorectal cancer. Oncology Letters, 20, 541-550. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11627
MLA
Yanai, Y., Hayashi, T., Akazawa, Y., Yatagai, N., Tsuyama, S., Yao, T., Saito, T."Clinicopathological and mutational differences between tumors with multiple metastases and single lung metastasis in colorectal cancer". Oncology Letters 20.1 (2020): 541-550.
Chicago
Yanai, Y., Hayashi, T., Akazawa, Y., Yatagai, N., Tsuyama, S., Yao, T., Saito, T."Clinicopathological and mutational differences between tumors with multiple metastases and single lung metastasis in colorectal cancer". Oncology Letters 20, no. 1 (2020): 541-550. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11627