Dihydrotanshinone I inhibits human glioma cell proliferation via the activation of ferroptosis
- Shougang Tan
- Xiaoqun Hou
- Lin Mei
Affiliations: Department of Neurosurgery, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, P.R. China
- Published online on: August 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11980
Copyright: © Tan
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dihydrotanshinone I (DHI) on the survival of human glioma cells and the expression levels of ferroptosis‑associated proteins. Human U251 and U87 glioma cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of DHI and/or the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin‑1. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay was used to determine the cell survival rate. The cells were further analyzed to determine their 5‑, 12‑ and 15‑hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios. Western blotting was used to detect ferroptosis‑associated glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and long‑chain acyl‑CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL‑4). Changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were also observed using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester staining and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that DHI inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells. Following treatment of the U251 and U87 cells with DHI, changes in the expression levels of ferroptosis‑associated proteins were observed; the expression level of GPX4 decreased and that of ACSL‑4 increased. DHI also increased the levels of LDH and MDA in the human glioma cells and reduced the GSH/GSSG ratio. The DHI‑treated cells also exhibited a marked reduction in MMP. Furthermore, ferrostatin‑1 blocked the DHI‑induced effects in human glioma cells. From these results, it may be concluded that DHI inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells via the induction of ferroptosis.