Emodin alleviates gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting MDR1/P‑glycoprotein and MRPs expression
- Hongchun Guo
- Feng Liu
- Shuguang Yang
- Tao Xue
Affiliations: Department of General Surgery, Shanxian Central Hospital, Heze, Shandong 274300, P.R. China, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanxian Central Hospital, Heze, Shandong 274300, P.R. China, Department of Trauma Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, P.R. China
- Published online on: August 27, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12030
Copyright: © Guo
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
Gemcitabine is a gold standard chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. However, gemcitabine has limited effectiveness due to the short‑term development of chemoresistance. Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the roots of rheumatic palm leaves prevents immunosuppression and exerts anticancer effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of emodin on gemcitabine resistance. Gemcitabine‑resistant PANC‑1 pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were established in athymic mice, which were randomly assigned into four treatments groups as follows: Gemcitabine group, Emodin group, Gemcitabine+Emodin group and Negative control group. Body weight, tumor volume and tumor weight were measured over the course of treatment. The effect of each treatment on tumor tissue proliferation and apoptosis from nude mice was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. The effect of each treatment on the proliferation of gemcitabine‑resistant PANC‑1 cells was also determined by using the Cell Counting Kit‑8. Then, reverse transcription‑quantitative (RT‑q) PCR and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) and the drug resistance‑related proteins MRP1 and MRP5. The function and expression level of DR1 gene product, p‑glycoprotein, was also analysed by flow cytometry and RT‑qPCR, respectively. The results demonstrated that the combination of gemcitabine and emodin significantly reduced xenograft volume and reduced tumor growth in mice compared with treatment with gemcitabine or emodin only. In addition, emodin treatment reduced resistance to gemcitabine, which was characterized by the downregulation of P‑glycoprotein, MRP1 and MRP5 expression in the group receiving combination treatment. The level of P‑glycoprotein was also decreased in the group treated with gemcitabine+emodin compared with the single treatment groups. Taken together, these results demonstrated that emodin enhanced gemcitabine efficacy in tumor treatment and alleviated gemcitabine resistance in PANC‑1 cell xenografts in mice via suppressing MDR1/P‑glycoprotein and MRP expression.