Open Access

Epigenetic editing and tumor‑dependent immunosuppressive signaling in head and neck malignancies (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Spyridon Gougousis
    • Savvas Petanidis
    • Alexandros Poutoglidis
    • Nikolaos Tsetsos
    • Paraskevas Vrochidis
    • Ioannis Skoumpas
    • Nektarios Argyriou
    • Theodora Katopodi
    • Kalliopi Domvri
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 4, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13317
  • Article Number: 196
  • Copyright: © Gougousis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Head and neck cancer (HNC) comprises a heterogeneous variety of malignant tumors, characterized by a relatively high tumor mutation burden. Previous data have revealed that immune system dysfunction appears to serve a key role in the development and progression of HNC and established immunosuppression is vital for evading the host immune response. Despite progress in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the survival rate of patients with HNC is still low. Therefore, the present review discusses the development of novel immunotherapy approaches based on the various immune cell signaling routes that trigger drug resistance and immunosuppression. Additionally, the present review discusses the epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and non‑coding RNAs that drive and support HNC progression. Furthermore, the role of cancer‑associated fibroblasts, tumor macrophages and myeloid cells in tumor‑related immunosuppression are considered. Specifically, the molecular immune‑related mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment, which lead to decreased drug sensitivity and tumor relapse, and strategies for reversing drug resistance and targeting immunosuppressive tumor networks are discussed. Deciphering these molecular mechanisms is essential for preclinical and clinical investigations in order to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, an improved understanding of these immune cell signaling pathways that drive immune surveillance, immune‑driven inflammation and tumor‑related immunosuppression is necessary for future personalized HNC‑based therapeutic approaches.

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June-2022
Volume 23 Issue 6

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Spandidos Publications style
Gougousis S, Petanidis S, Poutoglidis A, Tsetsos N, Vrochidis P, Skoumpas I, Argyriou N, Katopodi T and Domvri K: Epigenetic editing and tumor‑dependent immunosuppressive signaling in head and neck malignancies (Review). Oncol Lett 23: 196, 2022
APA
Gougousis, S., Petanidis, S., Poutoglidis, A., Tsetsos, N., Vrochidis, P., Skoumpas, I. ... Domvri, K. (2022). Epigenetic editing and tumor‑dependent immunosuppressive signaling in head and neck malignancies (Review). Oncology Letters, 23, 196. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13317
MLA
Gougousis, S., Petanidis, S., Poutoglidis, A., Tsetsos, N., Vrochidis, P., Skoumpas, I., Argyriou, N., Katopodi, T., Domvri, K."Epigenetic editing and tumor‑dependent immunosuppressive signaling in head and neck malignancies (Review)". Oncology Letters 23.6 (2022): 196.
Chicago
Gougousis, S., Petanidis, S., Poutoglidis, A., Tsetsos, N., Vrochidis, P., Skoumpas, I., Argyriou, N., Katopodi, T., Domvri, K."Epigenetic editing and tumor‑dependent immunosuppressive signaling in head and neck malignancies (Review)". Oncology Letters 23, no. 6 (2022): 196. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13317