Open Access

Androgen deprivation‑induced OPHN1 amplification promotes castration‑resistant prostate cancer

  • Authors:
    • Junjiang Liu
    • Yunxia Zhang
    • Shoubin Li
    • Fuzhen Sun
    • Gang Wang
    • Dong Wei
    • Tao Yang
    • Shouyi Gu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 2, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8214
  • Article Number: 3
  • Copyright: © Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used to treat prostate cancer (PCa). However, ADT may increase the expression of androgen receptor (AR) through the amplification of chromosome X. The gene oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) is located in the same region as the AR gene, which could be amplified by ADT. Thus, the role of OPHN1 in PCa pathology was investigated. The expression status of OPHN1 in PCa was searched in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Androgen‑sensitive cells LNCaP and 22RV1 were cultured under ADT conditions, and then the expression of OPHN1 was evaluated by northern blotting. The expression of OPHN1 was enhanced or knocked down in LNCaP and 22RV1 cells by transfection. Subsequently, the LNCaP and 22RV1 cells were cultured under ADT, and the viability rate, apoptosis, and migration of cells were assessed by MTT, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay respectively. The expression of OPHN1 was also enhanced or knocked down in androgen‑insensitive PC3 cells, and then the effects of OPHN1 on the viability, apoptosis, and migration of PC3 cells were assessed. A mouse xenograft model was created by injecting LNCaP cells with OPHN1 overexpression subcutaneously, and the tumor growth rates were monitored. In TCGA database, amplification of the OPHN1 gene was observed in the PCa tumors. ADT increased the expression of OPHN1 in LNCaP and 22RV1 cells (P<0.05). OPHN1 could promote resistance of LNCaP and 22RV1 cells to ADT by promoting cell survival and preventing their apoptosis (P<0.05). In addition, OPHN1 contributed to cell viability (P<0.05) and enhanced the migration ability in LNCaP, 22RV1 and PC3 cells (P<0.05). In the mouse model, the PCa xenograft with OPHN1 overexpression had a higher growth rate and was more resistant to the ADT condition (P<0.05). In summary, ADT induced the overexpression of OPHN1 in PCa, which facilitated PCa cell survival and promoted PCa progression.
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