Multiple cell death modalities and their key features (Review)
- Ge Yan
- Mohamed Elbadawi
- Thomas Efferth
Affiliations: Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, D‑55128 Mainz, Germany
- Published online on: March 11, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2020.40
Copyright: © Yan
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Cell death, as a final cellular decision which is reached following complex communications, represents a critical process with which to maintain organismic homeostasis. Different classifications and nomenclatures have brought considerable confusion to cell death determination. In the present review article, the hallmarks of different cell death modes are systematically described and are fitted into a simple classification system, where the cell death entities are primarily categorized into programmed cell death (PCD) or non‑PCD based on their signal dependency. PCD can be further categorized as apoptotic cell death or non‑apoptotic cell death. Programmed apoptosis consists of apoptosis, as well as anoikis. Multiple mechanisms and phenotypes compose programmed non‑apoptotic cell death, including vacuole‑presenting cell death (autophagy, entosis, methuosis and paraptosis), mitochondrial‑dependent cell death (mitoptosis and parthanatos), iron‑dependent cell death (ferroptosis), immune‑reactive cell death (pyroptosis and NETosis), as well as other types, such as necroptosis. Finally, necrosis represents a form of non‑programmed cell death.