Open Access

An updated evolutionary study of the nuclear receptor protein family

  • Authors:
    • Louis Papageorgiou
    • Livia Shalzi
    • Katerina Pierouli
    • Eleni Papakonstantinou
    • Symeon Manias
    • Konstantina Dragoumani
    • Nicolas C. Nicolaides
    • Antonis Giannakakis
    • Flora Bacopoulou
    • George P. Chrousos
    • Elias Eliopoulos
    • Dimitrios Vlachakis
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: August 25, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2021.122
  • Article Number: 51
  • Copyright: © Papageorgiou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is comprised of transcription factors that are ligand‑activated in their majority and play a pivotal role in biological functions that are essential for life, such as metabolism and homeostasis. Following activation, they undertake the regulation of the transcription of their target genes with the help of co‑regulator proteins, rendering them very promising pharmacological targets. In total, 59 NRs have been discovered in several species of the Animalia kingdom, 20 of which are still orphan receptors. The present study aimed to further enlighten the evolutionary scenario that reveals the association between members of the NR superfamily. An updated evolutionary analysis was performed for the NR protein superfamily with the aim of clustering all the NRs, and discovering conserved regions and motifs that play major roles in their signaling pathway; the mechanisms of action were also investigated. The findings of the present study demonstrate a clear separation of the NR family in three majors monophyletic branches, the steroid hormone‑related, the thyroid hormone‑related and the retinoid X receptor‑related clusters, from which, through evolution, may correspond to three ancestral NRs that were differentiated from a common ancestral NR.
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November-December 2021
Volume 3 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 2632-2900
Online ISSN:2632-2919

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Spandidos Publications style
Papageorgiou L, Shalzi L, Pierouli K, Papakonstantinou E, Manias S, Dragoumani K, Nicolaides NC, Giannakakis A, Bacopoulou F, Chrousos GP, Chrousos GP, et al: An updated evolutionary study of the nuclear receptor protein family. World Acad Sci J 3: 51, 2021
APA
Papageorgiou, L., Shalzi, L., Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Manias, S., Dragoumani, K. ... Vlachakis, D. (2021). An updated evolutionary study of the nuclear receptor protein family. World Academy of Sciences Journal, 3, 51. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2021.122
MLA
Papageorgiou, L., Shalzi, L., Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Manias, S., Dragoumani, K., Nicolaides, N. C., Giannakakis, A., Bacopoulou, F., Chrousos, G. P., Eliopoulos, E., Vlachakis, D."An updated evolutionary study of the nuclear receptor protein family". World Academy of Sciences Journal 3.6 (2021): 51.
Chicago
Papageorgiou, L., Shalzi, L., Pierouli, K., Papakonstantinou, E., Manias, S., Dragoumani, K., Nicolaides, N. C., Giannakakis, A., Bacopoulou, F., Chrousos, G. P., Eliopoulos, E., Vlachakis, D."An updated evolutionary study of the nuclear receptor protein family". World Academy of Sciences Journal 3, no. 6 (2021): 51. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2021.122