Anti-viral activity of human antithrombin III
- David R. Elmaleh
- Nancy V. Brown
- Ralf Geiben-Lynn
Published online on: August 1, 2005
Soluble inhibitory factors produced by CD8+ T-cells have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and may play a critical role in vivo in anti-viral host defense. CD8+ T-cell-modified antithrombin III (ATIII) accounts for some of the described CD8+ T-cell anti-viral activity. We demonstrate that CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and natural killer cells react to an ATIII gradient by cell migration. Furthermore, exogenously added ATIII induced a G-protein-coupled signal transduction process in CD4+ T-cells and inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Heat and/or heparin treatment prior to the anti-viral inhibition test increased the anti-HIV activity up to 1000-fold. Our data indicate that anti-viral inactive ATIII can be activated having promising anti-viral properties as complementary candidate for the treatment of HIV infection.