Safety of quercetin for clinical application (Review)
Research Laboratories, Nippon Chemiphar Co., Ltd., 1-22 Hikokawato, Misato, Saitama 341-0005, Japan. email@example.com
- Published online on: August 1, 2005 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.16.2.275
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Quercetin is the major flavonoid involved in vegetables and fruits. Quercetin is ingested from the daily diet, but in 1970s it was reported as mutagenic. Quercetin possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, and in order for further clinical application, it is important to evaluate its safety. In Ames test, quercetin is regarded as mutagenic. However, recent in vitro studies indicate that quercetin is protective against genotoxicants, and regarded as antimutagenic. Some in vivo studies including National Toxicology Program reported carcinogenic effect of quercetin in F344 rats. However, the method used in the study was unusual and the result was not reproduced. Most of the results of in vivo studies indicate that quercetin is not carcinogenic. Since 1969, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has undertaken a program to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of chemicals. In 1999, IARC concluded that quercetin is not classified carcinogenic to humans. In the U.S. and Europe, supplements of quercetin is commercially available, and beneficial effects of quercetin supplements were reported in clinical trials. Overall, quercetin is genotoxic to salmonella, but its safety upon human application is approved.