Limb remote ischemic post‑conditioning reduces injury and improves long‑term behavioral recovery in rats following subarachnoid hemorrhage: Possible involvement of the autophagic process
- Xiang Hu
- Tao Lv
- Shao‑Feng Yang
- Xiao‑Hua Zhang
- Yi‑Feng Miao
Published online on: October 24, 2017
Copyright: © Hu et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
Hemorrhage‑related neurologic injury is a primary cause of disability and mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect and the possible role of autophagy in limb remote ischemic post‑conditioning (RIPostC) using an endovascular puncture rat model of SAH. RIPostC was induced by three cycles of occlusion (10 min) and release (10 min) in the bilateral femoral artery using an aneurysm clip. Early RIPostC began immediately following SAH, delayed RIPostC began following a 30 min delay and the repeated RIPostC group underwent the protocol every day for 3 days. Brain water content, SAH grading, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling‑DAPI staining, transmission electron microscopy, and neurological and behavioral tests were conducted three days following surgery. Long term outcomes of behavior and memory were assessed using a rotarod test and Morris water maze test 1 month subsequently. Biomarkers of autophagy, including Beclin‑1 and light chain 3 (LC3), were assessed using western blotting. The results of the present study demonstrated that, compared with other groups, repeated RIPostC was able to alleviate brain edema, prevent neuronal apoptosis, and improve short term and long term neurological function and memory. Beclin‑1 and LC3 in the cortex were upregulated following treatment with repeated RIPostC. Autolysosomes increased 3 days following SAH and were maintained for 1 month in the repeated RIPostC group. Therefore, the present study indicated that the optimized repeated RIPostC may provide a noninvasive strategy to induce neuroprotection, and improve the short and long term outcomes of SAH‑related cerebral injury, possibly involving the autophagy pathway.