Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes

  • Authors:
    • Min-Ah Park
    • Kyung-A Hwang
    • Hye-Rim Lee
    • Bo-Rim Yi
    • Eui-Bae Jeung
    • Kyung-Chul Choi
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: December 15, 2011     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2011.712
  • Pages: 761-766
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Abstract

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmentally persistent exogenous compounds released from various industrial products such as plastics, pesticides, drugs, detergents and cosmetics. They can cause a variety of adverse effects to the reproductive, developmental, immune and nervous systems in humans and wildlife. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is the main compound of phthalates and is reported to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression and to interfere with normal fetal development of the male reproductive system. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is one of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have been widely used in plastic, electronic and textile applications and are known to cause endocrine disruption with toxicity of the nervous system. In the present study, the estrogenic effects of DBP and HBCD were examined in an ovarian cancer cell line, BG-1, expressing high levels of ER via MTT assay and semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Treatment with DBP (10-8-10-5 M) or HBCD (2x10-8-2x10-6 M) resulted in increased cell proliferation of BG-1 cells as observed with 17-β estradiol (E2). In addition, both DBP and HBCD upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle-regulatory genes, such as cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (cdk-4), which are downstream target genes of ER, at 6 h after treatment. However, the expression of the p21 gene was not altered by DBP or HBCD at any time as with E2. Taken together, these results suggest that DBP and HBCD are EDCs which have apparent estrogenic activities by stimulating the cell proliferation of BG-1 cells and by inducing the expression of cyclin D and cdk-4. Our results suggest that DBP and HBCD have sufficient potency to disrupt the endocrine system and to stimulate cell growth in ER-positive cancer cells.

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March 2012
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APA
Park, M., Hwang, K., Lee, H., Yi, B., Jeung, E., & Choi, K. (2012). Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes. Molecular Medicine Reports, 5, 761-766. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2011.712
MLA
Park, M., Hwang, K., Lee, H., Yi, B., Jeung, E., Choi, K."Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes". Molecular Medicine Reports 5.3 (2012): 761-766.
Chicago
Park, M., Hwang, K., Lee, H., Yi, B., Jeung, E., Choi, K."Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes". Molecular Medicine Reports 5, no. 3 (2012): 761-766. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2011.712