Aleukemic extramedullary T lymphoid/myeloid bilineage hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancy with progression to bilineage leukemia at relapse: A case report
- Mengyao Wu
- Xiaoqiu Li
- Feng Tang
- Ping Zhu
- Tianling Ding
- Yan Yuan
- Tong Chen
Published online on: October 18, 2017
Copyright: © Wu et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
Bilineage T lymphoid and myeloid (T/My) neoplasms are rare entities among the hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies. The majority of patients present with leukemic symptoms in which blasts are observed in the peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM) at a percentage of >20% of nucleated cells. Only a minimal number of cases of T/My bilineage hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancy have been reported with extramedullary infiltration as the initial symptom. The origin of the neoplastic cells in T/My bilineage malignancy has been documented as the hematopoietic stem cells. The present study reports the case of a 31‑year‑old man with a T/My bilineage malignancy, which initially showed cervical lymph node enlargement beyond the diagnostic criteria of leukemia in the PB and in the BM. Two distinct malignant populations were detected in the cervical lymph node and pleural effusion, one of which was positive for MPO‑staining, while the other was positive for cytoplasmic cluster of differentiation 3. Mutations in platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α, platelet‑derived growth factor receptor β, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and other chromosome abnormalities were excluded. The patient obtained complete remission after conventional chemotherapy, but relapsed with bilineage leukemia within a short period of time. Lymphoid and myeloid lineages have been reported to be differentiated from multipotent progenitors asymmetrically. However, the cellular mutation stage in T/My bilineage malignancy remains unclear. The present study also reviews the origin, development and therapeutic strategies for extramedullary T/My bilineage malignancy.