Open Access

Lymphadenitis associated with cat‑scratch disease simulating a neoplasm: Imaging findings with histopathological associations

  • Authors:
    • Ying Chen
    • Yan‑Biao Fu
    • Xiu‑Fang Xu
    • Yao Pan
    • Chen‑Ying Lu
    • Xiu‑Liang Zhu
    • Qing‑Hai Li
    • Ri‑Sheng Yu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 31, 2017     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7311
  • Pages:195-204
  • Copyright: © Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

The lymphadenitis associated with cat‑scratch disease (CSD) is often confused with neoplasms by a number of radiologists and clinicians, and consequently, unnecessary invasive procedures or surgeries are performed. In the present study, the contrast‑enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 10 patients (6 men and 4 women) with clinically and pathologically confirmed lymphadenitis associated with CSD were retrospectively analyzed (CT in 3 patients, MRI in 6 patients, and CT and MRI in 1 patient) at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China) between January 2007 and November 2014. As a result, 17 enlarged lymph nodes were identified in 10 cases. The 5 nodes identified by CT scan exhibited relatively inhomogeneous isodensity to muscle, with patchy low density in the center. All 14 nodes identified by MRI scan exhibited homogeneous or heterogeneous isointensity to muscle or slightly increased intensity compared with that of muscle on T1‑weighted images (T1WI), and homogeneous or heterogeneous hyperintensity on fat‑suppressed T2WI. Following enhancement, all 17 enlarged lymph nodes associated with CSD demonstrated the following 3 different enhancement patterns: Moderate homogeneous enhancement (n=8), which was associated with histologically identified early disease stage; marked heterogeneous enhancement with no enhancement of the necrotic areas (n=4), and heterogeneous enhancement with progressively ‘spoke‑wheel‑like’ (defined as radiating enhancement from the center) enhancement of the patchy low‑density area (n=1), which was associated with histologically identified intermediate disease stage; and astral low‑density/hypointensity with marked enhancement (n=2) or a ‘rose flower’ sign (n=2), which was associated with histologically identified late disease stage. We hypothesized that the CT and MRI results of lymphadenitis in CSD may be associated with the pathological features. It may be suggested that the diagnosis of CSD may be formed when considering the characteristic CT and MRI features of astral low‑density/hypointensity with marked enhancement or a ‘rose flower’ sign (defined as marginal petaloid enhancement) in the late disease stage, or the MRI results of homogeneous, moderate enhancement in the early disease stage, or the CT/MRI data of heterogeneous enhancement with non‑enhancing area in the center in the intermediate disease stage, in solitary or multiple enlarged lymph nodes associated with general subcutaneous edema in the vicinity of the nodes on CT/MRI and with a history of cat exposure.

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January 2018
Volume 15 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

2016 Impact Factor: 1.39
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APA
Chen, Y., Fu, Y., Xu, X., Pan, Y., Lu, C., Zhu, X. ... Yu, R. (2018). Lymphadenitis associated with cat‑scratch disease simulating a neoplasm: Imaging findings with histopathological associations. Oncology Letters, 15, 195-204. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7311
MLA
Chen, Y., Fu, Y., Xu, X., Pan, Y., Lu, C., Zhu, X., Li, Q., Yu, R."Lymphadenitis associated with cat‑scratch disease simulating a neoplasm: Imaging findings with histopathological associations". Oncology Letters 15.1 (2018): 195-204.
Chicago
Chen, Y., Fu, Y., Xu, X., Pan, Y., Lu, C., Zhu, X., Li, Q., Yu, R."Lymphadenitis associated with cat‑scratch disease simulating a neoplasm: Imaging findings with histopathological associations". Oncology Letters 15, no. 1 (2018): 195-204. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7311