Open Access

The link between FOXJ1 expression level in bladder carcinoma and tumor recurrence

Retraction in: /10.3892/ol.2018.8920

  • Authors:
    • Bing Liang
    • Xinwei He
    • Donghao Shang
    • Ye Tian
    • Zongwen Liu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 29, 2017     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7504
  • Pages: 1483-1486
  • Copyright: © Liang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: HTML 0 views | PDF 0 views     Cited By (CrossRef): 0 citations

Abstract

We studied the expression level of FOXJ1 in bladder epithelial carcinoma and its relation to clinical features and tumor recurrence. From January 2014 to June 2015, 66 patients with bladder epithelial carcinoma were enrolled in this study and their tumor and para‑carcinoma tissue samples were collected. FOXJ1 positive expression rate was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining, and FOXJ1 mRNA expression level was measured by RT‑PCR. RT‑PCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that FOXJ1 expression level in tumor samples was significantly lower than that in para‑carcinoma tissue samples. The median survival time in patients with positive expression of FOXJ1 was significantly longer than that of patients with negative expression of FOXJ1. We also showed that FOXJ1 expression level was negatively correlated with neoplasm staging and tumor recurrence rate. We concluded that FOXJ1 was expressed in low quantities in bladder epithelial carcinoma, which was closely correlated with the biological characteristics of the tumor. FOXJ1 expression presents a promising application prospect for further exploration of the specific biological mechanism of FOXJ1 in regulating the occurrence and development of bladder epithelial carcinoma. FOXJ1 may be used as a new marker for early diagnosis and prediction of recurrence.

Introduction

Bladder epithelial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary system without any certain pathogenesis. Usually, bladder epithelial carcinoma is multicenter and has infiltrative growth (1). Polyclonal theory argues that bladder epithelial carcinoma is a regional lesion of urothelium at different times and in different places (2). Presently, the molecular markers for early diagnosis of tumor and prediction of recurrence are insufficient. Results obtained from a prior study showed that FOX protein family is an important transcription factor family, having conventional DNA binding sites and extensively participating in various biological process such as differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion and the formation, development and regression of tumors (3). As a member of FOX family, FOXJ1 plays different roles in the occurrence and development of various tumors (4). FOXJ1 may play an inhibitory role in breast and ovarian cancers while its role in promoting the liver cancer has been reported (5). The present study further investigated the expression of FOXJ1 in bladder epithelial carcinoma and its correlation with clinical features and tumor recurrence.

Patients and methods

Patient data

From January 2014 to June 2015, 66 patients with bladder epithelial carcinoma were enrolled in the present study. There were 39 males and 27 females with ages ranging from 42 to 67 years (average, 54.3±12.6 years). In terms of TNM neoplasm staging, 27 cases were in early-stage, 25 cases in middle-stage and 14 cases were in late-stage. In terms of treatment methods, 40 cases underwent excision and chemotherapy and 26 cases had radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients' tumors and para-carcinoma tissues were collected (3 samples per patient collected by the same team), and tissue slices were prepared for observation. Patients with other primary malignant tumors and those who had difficulties with sample collection procedures were excluded. Study was approved by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou university Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from the patients.

Observation indexes and detection methods
Observation of the positive expression rate of FOXJ1 by immunocytochemistry

SP immunohistochemistry was conducted using the following reagents and instruments: Anti-human FOXJ1 monoclonal antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, UK), Rat SP ELISA kit, DAB ELISA kit, hematoxylin and neutral balsam (Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Beijing, China); sample injector (Eppendorf AG, Hamburg, Germany), slide warmers (Hubei Huida Instruments Co., Ltd., Xiaogan, Hubei, China), light microscope and BX-UCB digital slicing virtual scanner (Olympus Corp., Tokyo, Japan).

Main procedures were as follows: Samples dewaxing was done using xylene and hydrating using gradient ethanol. For antigen retrieval, samples were immersed in 0.01 mol/l citrate buffer solution for 2 min under pressure at boiling temperature and then cooled down at room temperature. Samples were washed with PBS buffer solution (5 min of washing, 3 times) followed by incubation in 3% H2O2 at room temperature for 20 min. Samples were washed again in PBS buffer solution (5 min of washing, 3 times). To block nonspecific bindings, normal goat serum working solution was added drop by drop on the samples and samples were incubated at room temperature for 30 min in a humid environment. Primary antibody was added (1:400 anti-human FOXJ1 monoclonal antibody) followed by overnight incubation at 4°C in a humid environment. Primary antibody was replaced with normal mouse IgG in the negative control. Samples were washed with PBS buffer solution (5 min of washing, 3 times) followed by adding secondary antibody. Samples were then incubated for 20 min in a humid environment. Samples were then washed with PBS buffer solution (5 min of washing, 3 times). Streptavidin working solution with horseradish peroxidase was added, followed by DBA color-developing, counterstaining with hematoxylin, hydrochloric acid alcohol differentiation, coloring ammonia back to blue, hydrating gradient ethanol, hyalinizing xylene, neural balsam sealing and drying at room temperature.

Under the premise that the the clinicopathological data of the patients were unknown to our 2 pathologists, the immunohistochemical results were analyzed using Sinicrope grading standards. Semiquantitative method was used, and the comprehensive scores were judged using the intensity of the color and the proportion of stained cells (1).

Determination of staining intensity: Non-positive staining, 0 point, faint staining 1 point, moderate-intensity staining, 2 points, strong staining, 3 points (2).

Determination of the proportion of positive cells: ≤5% positive cells, 0 point, 6–25% positive cells, 1 point, 26–50% positive cells, 2 points, 51–75% positive cells 3 points, >75% positive cells, 4 points (3). Final grading in each sample according to staining intensity and the proportion of stained cells were scored: Negative (0–3) and positive (412).

RT-PCR quantitative detection of FOXJ1 mRNA expression level

Main reagents and instruments used were the following: TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Shanghai, China), DNA reverse transcription kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Beijing, China), SYBR-Green Master Mix (Takara Bio, Dalian, China), homogenizer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), low-temperature high-speed centrifuge (Hunan Xiangya Instrument General Plant), NanoDrop®ND-1000 ultraviolet spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), low-profile 0.2 ml 8-tube strips without caps and Optical Flat 8-cap strips, for 0.2 ml tubes and plates (ultraclear) (Bio-Rad, Berkeley, CA, USA), real-time PCR instrument (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).

Total RNA was extracted using Normal TRIzol method and RNA purity and concentration were verified with spectrophotometery. cDNA was synthetized using First Strand cDNA Synthesis kit. The following FOXJ1 primers were designed with primer 5: FOXJ1 forward, 5′-TGGATCACGGACAACTTCTGCTA-3′ and FOXJ1 reverse, 5′-CACTTGTTCAGAGACAGGTTGTGG-3′; GAPDH forward, 5′-GCACCGTCAAGGCTGAGAAC-3′ and GAPDH reverse, 5′-TGGTGAAGACGCCAGTGGA-3′. We used 10 µl of X SYBR® Premix Ex Taq™, 1 µl of PCR positive and negative primers, respectively, 2 µl of cDNA template and 6 µl of ddH2O (total volume, 20 µl). Reaction condition was: 95°C for 30 sec, 95°C for 5 sec, 60°C for 30 sec, 72°C for 15 sec for 40 cycles. For solubility curve analysis we used 95°C for 60 sec, 55°C for 60 sec, cooling at 37°C for 1 h. We used 2−ΔΔCT, ΔCt=Ct FOXJ1-Ct GAPDH and Ct value was the cycle threshold required when the intensity of fluorescence signal reached the predicted value.

Statistical processing

SPSS 19.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software was used for statistical analysis. Quantitative data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the comparison between two groups was made by t-test. Comparison between multiple groups was done by single factor ANOVA. Qualitative data were expressed by percentage (%) and the comparison between groups was made using χ2 test. Median survival time was tested by Kaplan-Meier method and relevant analysis was made by Pearson or Spearman test. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.

Results

The positive expression rate of FOXJ1

FOXJ1 protein was mainly located in karyon of para-carcinoma. It was mainly located in brain tumor tissues (Fig. 1). There were 61 cases of positive expression in para-carcinoma samples (92.4%) and 32 cases of positive expression in tumor samples (48.5%). Positive expression rate in tumor samples was significantly lower, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=30,607, P<0.001). Positive expression rate in early-stage, middle-stage and late-stage patients was 63.0, 32.0 and 28.6%, respectively. Spearman relevant analysis results revealed that FOXJ1 expression was negatively correlated with neoplasm staging (χ2=6,756, P=0.034).

The expression level of FOXJ1 mRNA

FOXJ1 mRNA expression level in tumor samples was significantly lower than that in the para-carcinoma tissue samples, and the difference was statistically significant [(0.42±0.03) vs. (0.89±0.05), t=15,627, P<0.001]. FOXJ1 mRNA expression levels in early-stage, middle-stage and late-stage patients were 0.66±0.66, 0.53±0.06 and 0.35±0.04, respectively. Difference between groups was statistically significant (F=16,421, P<0.001).

Correlation between FOXJ1 expression and median survival time and recurrence rate

Follow-up period was ~6–22 months (follow-ups ended by January 2016), and the median time was 15 months. The median survival time for patients with positive expression of FOXJ1 was significantly longer than that of patients with negative expression of FOXJ1 (22 vs. 13 months), and the difference was statistically significant (log-rank test χ2=10,326, P<0.001) (Fig. 2). Of the patients 30.3% had recurrence, the positive expression rates of FOXJ1 in the relapsing patients and non-relapsing patients were 35.0 and 63.0%, respectively. The positive expression rate in relapsing patients significantly decreased, and the FOXJ1 expression was negatively correlated with tumor recurrence rate (χ2=4,422, P=0.035).

Discussion

FOX protein family members usually contain a DNA binding domain and a transcriptional regulatory domain. FOX proteins can effectively activate the transcription from target genes by recruiting coactivators. For instance, FOXM1b recruits cyclin proteins by transcribing LXL motif in the active region, relying on kinase-cyclin protein complexes and binding with it to make a combination of coactivator p300/CBP in promoter region for transcription initiation (6). Fox proteins transcriptional activity is regulated at several levels: i) At transcriptional level, ii) mRNA half-life and stability, iii) protein stability and iv) protein-protein interaction (7). Fox proteins could make the end-product to play its role through multiple signal transduction pathways such as Sonic-Hedgehog pathway, MAPK pathway, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, TGF-β/Smad pathway and IGF pathway to participate in multiple biological processes (8). FOX proteins are also important in cell apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. FOX proteins can interact with multiple accessory factors involved in the regulation of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression and programmed cell death (9). FOX protein involvement in G1 stage retardation, G2 stage delay, DNA repair and apoptosis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported (10).

FOX proteins seem to be participating in the biological regulation of various malignant tumors (11). It was shown that FOXM1 and FOXO3A compete for the same target sequence within promoter region of the same DNA and produce opposite transcriptional patterns (12). FOXJ1, also called HFH-4 or FKHL13, belongs to FOX transcriptional factor family, the gene is located at 17q22-q25, and the total length of its cDNA is ~2.6 kb. A recent study (13) reported that FOXJ1 was an important immunoregulatory transcriptional factor mainly expressed in T cells and its expression declined rapidly when T cells were activated. It could inhibit the humoral immune response of B cell mediation. B cells with defective FOXJ1 gene could spontaneously form a germinal center and produce a pathogenic autoantibody to intensify immune response. Results obtained from a prior study showed (14) that silencing FOXJ1 expression was probably an important mechanism in breast cancer development. It has been shown that FOXJ1 can inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-κB outside the human body. NF-κB activation has been shown to be correlated with tumor formation, promoting the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, upregulation of chemotactic factors and cellular adhesion molecules (15). NANOG is a transcriptional factor in stem cells and is involved in regulating ovarian cancer invasion and transference. FOXJ1 was shown to be the downstream regulating factor of NANOG (16). Multiple studies (4,5) have reported abnormal expression of FOXJ1 in various tumors. It was shown that FOXJ1 expression level and function depended on the occurrence and the stages of the tumor. Therefore, the function of FOXJ1 in the occurrence, development and tumor invasion needs further research.

Results obtained in the present study revealed that the positive expression and the level of FOXJ1 mRNA expression in tumors were significantly lower than that in para-carcinoma tissues. The median survival time in patients with positive expression of FOXJ1 was significantly longer than that of patients with negative FOXJ1. Results obtained from relevant analysis showed that FOXJ1 expression was negatively correlated with neoplasm staging and tumor recurrence rate. FOXJ1 was expressed in low quantities in bladder epithelial carcinoma, which was closely correlated with the biological characteristics of the tumor. We believe that FOXJ1 plays an important role in regulating the occurrence and the development of bladder epithelial carcinoma. The above indicate that future studies may prove that FOXJ1 is appropriate to be used as the new marker for early detection as well as prediction of recurrence in the cases of bladder epithelial carcinoma.

References

1 

Sha N, Xie L, Chen T, Xing C, Liu X, Zhang Y, Shen Z, Xu H, Wu Z, Hu H, et al: Impact of lymphovascular invasion on recurrence and progression rates in patients with pT1 urothelial carcinoma of bladder after transurethral resection. Onco Targets Ther. 8:3401–3406. 2015.PubMed/NCBI

2 

Schlegel JU, Pipkin GE, Nishimura R and Duke GA: Studies in the etiology and prevention of bladder carcinoma. J Urol. 101:317–324. 1969. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

3 

Caburet S, Vaiman D and Veitia RA: A genomic basis for the evolution of vertebrate transcription factors containing amino Acid runs. Genetics. 167:1813–1820. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

4 

Chen HW, Huang XD, Li HC, He S, Ni RZ, Chen CH, Peng C, Wu G, Wang GH, Wang YY, et al: Expression of FOXJ1 in hepatocellular carcinoma: Correlation with patients' prognosis and tumor cell proliferation. Mol Carcinog. 52:647–659. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

5 

Venugopalan SR, Amen MA, Wang J, Wong L, Cavender AC, D'Souza RN, Akerlund M, Brody SL, Hjalt TA and Amendt BA: Novel expression and transcriptional regulation of FoxJ1 during oro-facial morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 17:3643–3654. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

6 

Major ML, Lepe R and Costa RH: Forkhead box M1B transcriptional activity requires binding of Cdk-cyclin complexes for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of p300/CBP coactivators. Mol Cell Biol. 24:2649–2661. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

7 

Ono M, Yaguchi H, Ohkura N, Kitabayashi I, Nagamura Y, Nomura T, Miyachi Y, Tsukada T and Sakaguchi S: Foxp3 controls regulatory T-cell function by interacting with AML1/Runx1. Nature. 446:685–689. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

8 

Ma RY, Tong TH, Leung WY and Yao KM: Raf/MEK/MAPK signaling stimulates the nuclear translocation and transactivating activity of FOXM1. Methods Mol Biol. 647:113–123. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

9 

Postnikoff SD, Malo ME, Wong B and Harkness TA: The yeast forkhead transcription factors fkh1 and fkh2 regulate lifespan and stress response together with the anaphase-promoting complex. PLoS Genet. 8:e10025832012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

10 

Laoukili J, Kooistra MR, Brás A, Kauw J, Kerkhoven RM, Morrison A, Clevers H and Medema RH: FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability. Nat Cell Biol. 7:126–136. 2005. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

11 

Myatt SS and Lam EW: The emerging roles of forkhead box (Fox) proteins in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 7:847–859. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

12 

Karadedou CT, Gomes AR, Chen J, Petkovic M, Ho KK, Zwolinska AK, Feltes A, Wong SY, Chan KY, Cheung YN, et al: FOXO3a represses VEGF expression through FOXM1-dependent and -independent mechanisms in breast cancer. Oncogene. 31:1845–1858. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

13 

Lin L, Spoor MS, Gerth AJ, Brody SL and Peng SL: Modulation of Th1 activation and inflammation by the NF-kappaB repressor Foxj1. Science. 303:1017–1020. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

14 

Demircan B, Dyer LM, Gerace M, Lobenhofer EK, Robertson KD and Brown KD: Comparative epigenomics of human and mouse mammary tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 48:83–97. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

15 

Lu T and Stark GR: Cytokine overexpression and constitutive NFkappaB in cancer. Cell Cycle. 3:1114–1117. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

16 

Siu MK, Wong ES, Kong DS, Chan HY, Jiang L, Wong OG, Lam EW, Chan KK, Ngan HY, Le XF, et al: Stem cell transcription factor NANOG controls cell migration and invasion via dysregulation of E-cadherin and FoxJ1 and contributes to adverse clinical outcome in ovarian cancers. Oncogene. 32:3500–3509. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Related Articles

Journal Cover

February 2018
Volume 15 Issue 2

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Liang, B., He, X., Shang, D., Tian, Y., & Liu, Z. (2018). The link between FOXJ1 expression level in bladder carcinoma and tumor recurrence Retraction in /10.3892/ol.2018.8920. Oncology Letters, 15, 1483-1486. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7504
MLA
Liang, B., He, X., Shang, D., Tian, Y., Liu, Z."The link between FOXJ1 expression level in bladder carcinoma and tumor recurrence Retraction in /10.3892/ol.2018.8920". Oncology Letters 15.2 (2018): 1483-1486.
Chicago
Liang, B., He, X., Shang, D., Tian, Y., Liu, Z."The link between FOXJ1 expression level in bladder carcinoma and tumor recurrence Retraction in /10.3892/ol.2018.8920". Oncology Letters 15, no. 2 (2018): 1483-1486. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7504