Promoter methylation of RB1, P15, P16, and MGMT and their impact on the clinical course of pilocytic astrocytomas
- Christoph Sippl
- Steffi Urbschat
- Yoo Jin Kim
- Sebastian Senger
- Joachim Oertel
- Ralf Ketter
Published online on: November 24, 2017
Copyright: © Sippl et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
Promoter methylation of P15, P16, RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1) and O‑6‑methylguanine‑DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) impacts the prognosis of numerous glioma subtypes. However, whether promoter methylation of these genes also has an impact on the clinical course of pilocytic astrocytoma remains unclear. Using methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction, the methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes P15, P16, RB1, and MGMT in pilocytic astrocytomas (n=18) was analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining for the R132H mutation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 1, cytosolic (IDH1) gene was performed. Clinical data including age, gender, localization of tumor, extent of resection, treatment modality, progression‑free survival and overall survival were collected. The methylation index for P15, P16, RB1 and MGMT was 0.0, 0.0, 5.6% (1/18) and 44.5% (8/18), respectively. If the MGMT promoter was methylated, the probability of relapse and second subsequent therapy was significantly increased (P=0.019). The one patient with methylation of P15 demonstrated a poor clinical course. The pilocytic astrocytomas of all 18 patients revealed wild‑type IDH1. Clinically, there was a significant correlation of subtotal resection with the occurrence of relapse (P=0.005) and of the localization of the tumor with the extent of resection (P=0.031). Gross total resection was achieved significantly more often in pediatric patients than in adult patients (P=0.003). Adult patients demonstrated more relapses following the first tumor resection (P=0.001). The present study indicates that methylation of MGMT is associated with a poor clinical course and represents an age‑independent risk factor for an unfavorable outcome. Other influential factors of outcome were the age of the patient and extent of resection.