Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review)

  • Authors:
    • César Rivera
    • Bernardo Venegas
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 29, 2014     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2014.2103
  • Pages: 7-11
Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 95% of all forms of head and neck cancer, and over the last decade its incidence has increased by 50%. Oral carcinogenesis is a multistage process, which simultaneously involves precancerous lesions, invasion and metastasis. Degradation of the cell cycle and the proliferation of malignant cells results in the loss of control mechanisms that ensure the normal function of tissues. The aim of the current review is to present the histopathological features of OSCC, including potentially malignant changes, the international classification of tumors, the tumor invasion front and tumor biomarkers (Ki‑67, p53, homeobox genes and collagen type IV), as well as the tumor microenvironment and function of cancer‑associated fibroblasts in the most common type of oral cancer that is encountered by dental surgeons. In OSCC, associations have been identified between the proliferation, basal lamina degradation and connective tissue modulation. Therefore, the comparison of these factors with the survival time of OSCC patients from the histopathological diagnosis is of interest.

References

1 

Dissanayaka WL, Pitiyage G, Kumarasiri PV, Liyanage RL, Dias KD and Tilakaratne WM: Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 113:518–525. 2012.

2 

Bray F, Sankila R, Ferlay J and Parkin DM: Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 1995. Eur J Cancer. 38:99–166. 2002.

3 

Parkin D, Bray F, Ferlay J and Pisani P: Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 55:74–108. 2005.

4 

Koontongkaew S: The tumor microenvironment contribution to development, growth, invasion and metastasis of head and necksquamous cell carcinomas. J Cancer. 4:66–83. 2013.

5 

Wangsa D, Ryott M, Avall-Lundqvist E, et al: Ki-67 expression predicts locoregional recurrence in stage I oral tongue carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 99:1121–1128. 2008.

6 

Jung DW, Che ZM, Kim J, Kim K, Kim KY and Williams D: Tumor-stromal crosstalk in invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a pivotal role of CCL7. Int J Cancer. 127:332–344. 2010.

7 

Centelles PV, Seoane-Romero JM, Gómez I, Diz-Dios P, de Melo NS and Seoane J: Timing of oral cancer diagnosis: Implications for prognosis and survival. Oral Cancer. Ogbureke KUE: InTech; pp. 173–188. 2012

8 

Bettendorf O, Piffkò J and Bànkfalvi A: Prognostic and predictive factors in oral squamous cell cancer: important tools for planning individual therapy? Oral Oncol. 40:110–119. 2004.

9 

Hanahan D and Weinberg RA: The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 100:57–70. 2000.

10 

Tumuluri V, Thomas GA and Fraser IS: Analysis of the Ki-67 antigen at the invasive tumour front of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 31:598–604. 2002.

11 

Wilkey JF, Buchberger G, Saucier K, et al: Cyclin D1 overexpression increases susceptibility to 4-nitroquinoline-1 -oxide-induced dysplasia and neoplasia in murine squamous oral epithelium. Mol Carcinog. 48:853–861. 2009.

12 

Neville B, Damm D, Allen C and Bouquot J: Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd edition. Saunders Elsevier; Philadelphia, PA: pp. 356–367. 2009

13 

Jerjes W, Upile T, Petrie A, et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1–T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:92010.

14 

Sapp JP, Eversole LR and Wysocki GP: Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Chapter 6: Epithelial Disorders. 2nd edition. Mosby Year Book Inc; Maryland Heights, MO: pp. 184–193. 2004

15 

Neville BW and Day TA: Oral cancer and precancerous lesions. CA Cancer J Clin. 52:195–215. 2002.

16 

Wang Z, Zhang B, Jiang L, et al: RACK1, an excellent predictor for poor clinical outcome in oral squamous carcinoma, similar to Ki67. Eur J Cancer. 45:490–496. 2009.

17 

Rivera MCA: 4NQO carcinogenesis: A model of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Morphol. 30:309–314. 2012.

18 

Fuentes B, Duaso J, Droguett D, et al: Progressive extracellular matrix disorganization in chemically induced murine oral squamous cell carcinoma. ISRN Pathology. 2012.

19 

Rivera CA, Droguett DA, Kemmerling U and Venegas BA: Chronic restraint stress in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Dent Res. 90:799–803. 2011.

20 

Pindborg JJ, Reichart PA, Smith CJ and Van der Waal I: WHO International Histological Classification of Tumours Histological typing of cancer and precancer of the oral mucosa. Springer-Verlag; New York: 1997

21 

Wang X, Zhang J, Fan M, et al: The expression of E-cadherin at the invasive tumor front of oral squamous cell carcinoma: immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analysis with clinicopathological correlation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 107:547–554. 2009.

22 

Bànkfalvi A and Piffkò J: Prognostic and predictive factors in oral cancer: the role of the invasive tumour front. J Oral Pathol Med. 29:291–298. 2000.

23 

Kurokawa H, Zhang M, Matsumoto S, et al: The high prognostic value of the histologic grade at the deep invasive front of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 34:329–333. 2005.

24 

Bryne M, Koppang HS, Lilleng R and Kjaerheim A: Malignancy grading of the deep invasive margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas has high prognostic value. J Pathol. 166:375–381. 2005.

25 

Oliveira L, Ribeiro-Silva A, Costa J, Simões A, Matteo M and Zucoloto S: Prognostic factors and survival analysis in a sample of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 106:685–695. 2008.

26 

Leemans CR, Braakhuis BJ and Brakenhoff RH: The molecular biology of head and neck cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 11:9–22. 2010.

27 

Choi S and Myers J: Molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: implications for therapy. J Dent Res. 87:14–32. 2008.

28 

Massano J, Regateiro F, Januário G and Ferreira A: Oral squamous cell carcinoma: review of prognostic and predictive factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 102:67–76. 2006.

29 

van Houten VM, Tabor MP, van den Brekel MW, et al: Mutated p53 as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. J Pathol. 198:476–486. 2002.

30 

Maddocks OD and Vousden KH: Metabolic regulation by p53. J Mol Med (Berl). 89:237–245. 2011.

31 

Yerushalmi R, Woods R, Ravdin PM, Hayes M and Gelmon KA: Ki-67 in breast cancer: prognostic and predictive potential. Lancet Oncol. 11:1742010.

32 

Bitu CC, Carrera M, Lopes MA, Kowalski LP, Soares FA and Coletta RD: HOXB7 expression is a prognostic factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathology. 60:662–665. 2012.

33 

Shah N and Sukumar S: The Hox genes and their roles in oncogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 10:361–371. 2010.

34 

Tucci R, Campos MS, Matizonkas-Antonio LF, Durazzo M, dos Pinto Junior DS and Nunes FD: HOXB5 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Appl Oral Sci. 19:125–129. 2011.

35 

Liao WT, Jiang D, Yuan J, et al: HOXB7 as a prognostic factor and mediator of colorectal cancer progression. Clin Cancer Res. 17:3569–3578. 2011.

36 

Fan HX, Li HX, Chen D, Gao ZX and Zheng JH: Changes in the expression of MMP2, MMP9, and ColIV in stromal cells in oral squamous tongue cell carcinoma: relationships and prognostic implications. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 31:902012.

37 

Kumar V, Abbas AK and Aster JC: Robbins Basic Pathology Chapter 7: Neoplasia. 8th ed. Saunders; Philadelphia, PA: pp. 298–299. 2012

38 

Tamamura R, Nagatsuka H, Siar CH, et al: Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen alpha chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma. Acta Histochem. 115:113–119. 2013.

39 

de Vicente JC, Fresno MF, Villalain L, Vega JA and Hernández Vallejo G: Expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 41:283–293. 2005.

40 

Baba Y, Iyama K, Ikeda K, et al: The Expression of type IV collagen α6 chain is related to the prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 15:555–565. 2008.

41 

Kenny PA, Lee GY and Bissell MJ: Targeting the tumor microenvironment. Front Biosci. 12:3468–3474. 2007.

42 

Zhang J and Liu J: Tumor stroma as targets for cancer therapy. Pharmacol Ther. 137:200–215. 2013.

43 

Liotta LA and Kohn EC: The microenvironment of the tumour-host interface. Nature. 411:375–379. 2001.

44 

Shimoda M, Mellody KT and Orimo A: Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts are a rate-limiting determinant for tumour progression. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 21:19–25. 2010.

45 

Räsänen K and Vaheri A: Activation of fibroblasts in cancer stroma. Exp Cell Res. 316:2713–2722. 2010.

46 

Xouri G and Christian S: Origin and function of tumor stroma fibroblasts. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 21:40–46. 2010.

47 

de-Assis EM, Pimenta LG, Costa-e-Silva E, Souza PE and Horta MC: Stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 17:e733–e738. 2012.

48 

Thode C, Jørgensen TG, Dabelsteen E, Mackenzie I and Dabelsteen S: Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 40:201–207. 2011.

Related Articles

Journal Cover

July 2014
Volume 8 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Rivera, C., & Rivera, C. (2014). Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review). Oncology Letters, 8, 7-11. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2014.2103
MLA
Rivera, C., Venegas, B."Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review)". Oncology Letters 8.1 (2014): 7-11.
Chicago
Rivera, C., Venegas, B."Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review)". Oncology Letters 8, no. 1 (2014): 7-11. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2014.2103