Male breast cancer: Risk factors, diagnosis, and management (Review)
Affiliations: American Medical Association, Chicago, IL 60654, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Published online on: November 1, 2010 https://doi.org/10.3892/or_00000962
- Pages: 1115-1120
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Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare, with an incidence in the general US population of <1%. It tends to be diagnosed at later stages than breast cancer in females, likely because of low awareness on the part of the patient and low suspicion by the physician. Risk factors include genetic predisposition, alterations to the estrogen-testosterone ratio, radiation exposure, and occupational hazards. Because of the rarity of MBC, mammography in men is more often utilized as a diagnostic tool to evaluate breast symptoms rather than as a tool for widespread screening. While clinical breast examinations are effective at evaluating breast symptoms, mammography also may be beneficial in separating malignant from benign breast disease. This study reviews MBC and its risk factors, recommendations for screening and diagnosis, the roles of mammography and genetic testing in surveillance, and management of patients with MBC. Heightened awareness of the increased risk in certain men by both physicians and patients, and adherence to guidelines recommended for the surveillance of men at increased risk, may result in earlier detection.