Red complex periodontal pathogens are risk factors for liver cirrhosis
- Yumiko Nagao
- Takeshi Tanigawa
Published online on: October 3, 2019
Copyright: © Nagao et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Periodontal disease has been associated with liver disease; however, the identities of the periodontal disease‑causing bacteria in patients with viral liver disease remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the counts of the 3 periodontal pathogens that form the red complex in chronic periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) and 3 other bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium necrophorum) in patients with liver disease. A total of 47 patients with liver disease were divided into two groups based on the counts of the red complex bacteria: group A (high counts of red complex bacteria) and group B (low counts of red complex bacteria). The counts of the 6 types of bacteria in saliva and the prevalence of P. gingivalis‑specific fimA genotype were determined. In addition, salivary occult blood tests and serological assays were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the risk factors between the two groups of patients. Hepatitis C virus‑related liver disease was the most frequent (41/47; 87.2%) occurrence followed by liver cirrhosis (LC; 12/47; 25.5%) and oral lichen planus (32/47; 68.1%). The significant risk factors between the two groups were LC, albumin (Alb) level, ratios of each bacteria and prevalence of the fimA II genotype. The 3 factors identified in the multivariate analysis to be associated with the red complex bacteria count were low Alb level (<3.7 g/dl), LC and fimA II genotype, with adjusted odds ratios of 6.93, 4.72 and 4.08, respectively (P<0.05). These data indicated that patients with LC were at increased risk of presenting with the red complex bacteria leading to periodontal disease progression. Therefore, these patients may need to take additional care of their oral health compared with patients without LC, which may prove beneficial for the maintenance of their general health.