Sulfur‑containing amino acids in aged garlic extract inhibit inflammation in human gingival epithelial cells by suppressing intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 expression and IL‑6 secretion

  • Authors:
    • Masahiro Ohtani
    • Tsubasa Nishimura
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  • Published online on: December 30, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2019.1269
  • Pages: 99-108
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Abstract

Aged garlic extract (AGE) contains various biologically active sulfur‑containing amino acids, such as S‑allylcysteine (SAC), S‑1‑propenylcysteine (S1PC) and S‑allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC). These amino acids have been demonstrated to lower hypertension, improve atherosclerosis and enhance immunity through their anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activities. It was recently reported that the administration of AGE alleviated gingivitis in a clinical trial. In this study, to gain insight into this effect of AGE, the authors examined whether AGE and the three above‑mentioned sulfur compounds influence the effects of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in inducing intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) expression and interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) secretion in Ca9‑22 human gingival epithelial cells. It was found that S1PC reduced the level of ICAM‑1 protein induced by TNF‑α possibly through post‑translational levels without affecting the TNF‑α‑induced mRNA expression. However, SAC and SAMC had no effect. It was also confirmed the inhibitory effect of an antimicrobial peptide [human‑β defensin‑3 (hβD3)] and found that the inhibitory effects of hbD3 and S1PC were synergistic. On the other hand, the TNF‑α‑induced IL‑6 secretion was attenuated by SAC and SAMC in a dose‑dependent manner, whereas S1PC was ineffective. In addition, SAC and SAMC, but not S1PC inhibited the phosphorylation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB), which is involved in the expression of inflammatory molecules, suggesting that the anti‑inflammatory effects of SAC and SAMC are mediated, at least partly, by NF‑κB. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that the three sulfur amino acids in AGE function synergistically in alleviating inflammation in human gingival epithelial cells.
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March 2020
Volume 12 Issue 3

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Online ISSN:2049-9442

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APA
Ohtani, M., & Ohtani, M. (2020). Sulfur‑containing amino acids in aged garlic extract inhibit inflammation in human gingival epithelial cells by suppressing intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 expression and IL‑6 secretion. Biomedical Reports, 12, 99-108. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2019.1269
MLA
Ohtani, M., Nishimura, T."Sulfur‑containing amino acids in aged garlic extract inhibit inflammation in human gingival epithelial cells by suppressing intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 expression and IL‑6 secretion". Biomedical Reports 12.3 (2020): 99-108.
Chicago
Ohtani, M., Nishimura, T."Sulfur‑containing amino acids in aged garlic extract inhibit inflammation in human gingival epithelial cells by suppressing intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 expression and IL‑6 secretion". Biomedical Reports 12, no. 3 (2020): 99-108. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2019.1269