Open Access

Effects of abrocitinib on pruritus and eczema symptoms and tolerance in patients with moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis in randomized, double‑blind and placebo‑controlled trials: A systematic review and a meta‑analysis

  • Authors:
    • Xingxing Xie
    • Jie Zhang
    • Fujing Huang
    • Ling Fan
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 29, 2024     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2024.1772
  • Article Number: 84
  • Copyright: © Xie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Abrocitinib is a highly selective Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor that can block a multitude of inflammatory signaling pathways that underlie atopic dermatitis (AD). In addition, abrocitinib inhibits JAK1 signaling in sensory neurons to alleviate acute and chronic pruritus during AD. However, substantial variations in efficacy and safety risks remain due to variations in doses applied in clinical use. Therefore for the present study, differences in the efficacy and tolerability of 100 and 200 mg abrocitinib for treating pruritus and eczema symptoms in patients with moderate‑to‑severe AD were evaluated compared with placebo. Specifically, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of abrocitinib compared with placebo for the treatment of moderate‑to‑severe AD were searched on Pubmed, E.B. Stephens Company, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Medical network, Web of Science and related Clinical Trials Registry up to November 2023. In total, two researchers evaluated the quality of the included literature according to the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. RevMan 5.3 software was used to conduct a meta‑analysis of the efficacy and safety indicators in a cross‑comparison of the effects exerted by placebo and 100 and 200 mg abrocitinib. A total of 1,825 patients with moderate‑to‑severe AD were included across five double‑blind, placebo RCTs. Compared with the placebo group, during the double‑blind trial period, significant improvements were observed in the investigator's global assessment score, response rate of eczema area and severity index (EASI)‑50, EASI‑75, EASI‑90 and pruritus numerical rating scale (P‑NRS) in the 100 and 200 mg abrocitinib groups (P<0.05). However, pairwise control analysis of the 100 and 200 mg group yielded significant differences (P<0.05) in all of the aforementioned therapeutic indicators except for the P‑NRS score. In terms of safety, compared with the placebo group, there were significantly higher incidence of nausea, upper respiratory tract viral infection, infections and infestations in the 100 mg abrocitinib group (P<0.05). In addition, there were significantly higher incidence of nausea, gastrointestinal disorder, headache and dizziness in the 200 mg group (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in the incidence of nausea, gastrointestinal disorder and dizziness between the 100 and 200 mg groups (P<0.05). For patients with moderate‑to‑severe AD, oral administration of 100 or 200 mg abrocitinib once/day was concluded to ameliorate skin pruritus and eczema symptoms to varying degrees, with the efficacy significantly superior at the 200 mg dose. However, the risk of a number of adverse reactions, such as headache, dizziness, nausea and gastrointestinal dysfunction, is also significantly increased. Therefore, patients should be made aware of the risk of adverse drug effects prior to the administration of long‑term high abrocitinib doses. Furthermore, large‑scale, multi‑center, rigorous clinical trials remain necessary to validate the findings from the present study.

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May-2024
Volume 20 Issue 5

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Spandidos Publications style
Xie X, Zhang J, Huang F and Fan L: Effects of abrocitinib on pruritus and eczema symptoms and tolerance in patients with moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis in randomized, double‑blind and placebo‑controlled trials: A systematic review and a meta‑analysis. Biomed Rep 20: 84, 2024
APA
Xie, X., Zhang, J., Huang, F., & Fan, L. (2024). Effects of abrocitinib on pruritus and eczema symptoms and tolerance in patients with moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis in randomized, double‑blind and placebo‑controlled trials: A systematic review and a meta‑analysis. Biomedical Reports, 20, 84. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2024.1772
MLA
Xie, X., Zhang, J., Huang, F., Fan, L."Effects of abrocitinib on pruritus and eczema symptoms and tolerance in patients with moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis in randomized, double‑blind and placebo‑controlled trials: A systematic review and a meta‑analysis". Biomedical Reports 20.5 (2024): 84.
Chicago
Xie, X., Zhang, J., Huang, F., Fan, L."Effects of abrocitinib on pruritus and eczema symptoms and tolerance in patients with moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis in randomized, double‑blind and placebo‑controlled trials: A systematic review and a meta‑analysis". Biomedical Reports 20, no. 5 (2024): 84. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2024.1772