Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A review of current updates
Affiliations: Sichuan Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chengdu, Sichuan 610000, P.R. China
- Published online on: February 20, 2018 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.5878
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et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy worldwide, but it is endemic in a few areas including Southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa and the Arctic. The underlying mechanisms behind this remarkable geographic distribution remain unclear. Although Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) infection has been suggested as a necessary cause of undifferentiated NPC, EBV itself is not sufficient to cause this malignancy. Other co-factors, such as environmental risk factors, and/or genetic susceptibility, may interact with EBV to play a role in the carcinogenesis of NPC. Survival rates differ significantly between NPC patients in early stages and late stages. Due to the close associations between EBV infection and NPC risk, EBV-related biomarkers have been used for early detection and screening for NPC in a few high-incidence areas. In the present review article the latest updates are discussed.