Open Access

Comparison of oral and nasal immunization with inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on intestinal immunity in piglets

  • Authors:
    • En Zhang
    • Jialu Wang
    • Yuchen Li
    • Lulu Huang
    • Yongheng Wang
    • Qian Yang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: June 3, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8828
  • Pages: 1596-1606
  • Copyright: © Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has proven to be a major problem for the porcine industry worldwide. Conventional injectable vaccines induce effective systemic immune responses but are less effective in preventing PEDV at mucosal invasion sites, including the nasal or oral mucosa. Additionally, antigens delivered orally are easily degraded. Nasal immunization induces intestinal mucosal immune responses, which can aid in blocking viral invasion, and requires fewer antigen inoculation doses. Therefore, nasal immunizations are considered to be a potential approach to overcome viral infections. In the present study, nasal immunization of piglets was performed using inactivated PEDV combined with Bacillus subtilis as an immunopotentiator and the efficacy of nasal immunization was assessed. The results demonstrated that compared with oral immunization, piglets from the nasal immunization group exhibited higher levels of neutralizing antibodies (P<0.01) in the intestine, PEDV‑specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G (P<0.01) in serum and PEDV‑specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in saliva (P<0.01) and nasal secretions (P<0.01). An increased number of intestinal CD3+ T cells, IgA‑secreting cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes (P<0.05) were also observed. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of interleukin‑6 and interferon‑γ, relative to the control PEDV infection, were also significantly elevated (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that nasal immunization is more effective at inducing the intestinal mucosal immune response, and provide new insights into a novel vaccination strategy that may be used to decrease the incidence of PEDV infections.

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August-2020
Volume 20 Issue 2

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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APA
Zhang, E., Wang, J., Li, Y., Huang, L., Wang, Y., & Yang, Q. (2020). Comparison of oral and nasal immunization with inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on intestinal immunity in piglets. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 20, 1596-1606. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8828
MLA
Zhang, E., Wang, J., Li, Y., Huang, L., Wang, Y., Yang, Q."Comparison of oral and nasal immunization with inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on intestinal immunity in piglets". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 20.2 (2020): 1596-1606.
Chicago
Zhang, E., Wang, J., Li, Y., Huang, L., Wang, Y., Yang, Q."Comparison of oral and nasal immunization with inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on intestinal immunity in piglets". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 20, no. 2 (2020): 1596-1606. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8828