A systematic review of non‑pharmacological interventions used for pain relief after orthopedic surgical procedures
Affiliations: Department of Operating Room, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, P.R. China
- Published online on: September 1, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9163
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et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy of various non‑pharmacological interventions to relieve pain after orthopedic surgical procedures. An electronic search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library databases was performed to retrieve studies of all types assessing the role of non‑pharmacological interventions for pain relief after orthopedic surgical procedures. The included studies were required to assess pain outcomes using a validated measurement index, such as the Visual Analog Scale. The quality of randomized control trials (RCTs) was assessed using the Cochrane tool, while the ROBINS‑I tool was used for non‑RCTs. A total of five studies were included, namely three RCTs and two non‑RCTs. The included studies used relaxation therapy, guided imagery, music and audio‑visual distraction for pain management. There was considerable heterogeneity concerning study participants and types of intervention, which precluded a meta‑analysis. Overall, all studies reported a significant beneficial effect of non‑pharmacological interventions for pain relief. To conclude, current evidence from a limited number of studies indicates there may be a potential role of non‑pharmacological interventions, including relaxation therapy, guided imagery, music and audio‑visual distraction, in pain management of patients after orthopedic surgery. Owing to considerable heterogeneity and risk of bias in the included studies, strong conclusions cannot be drawn. Further high‑quality RCTs assessing the role of such non‑pharmacological techniques of pain management are required to strengthen the current evidence.