Update on COVID‑19: A teleconference with the Paediatric Virology Study Group (Review)
- Vasilios Tzilas
- Demosthenes Bouros
Affiliations: First Academic Department of Pneumonology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, 11527 Athens, Greece
- Published online on: October 30, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9423
Copyright: © Tzilas
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is transmitted to humans mainly via contact and droplet transmission and its entry into cells is mediated by the efficient binding of the spike (S) viral protein with the angiotensin converting enzyme‑2 (ACE2) receptors. Although acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by SARS‑CoV‑2 fulfills the criteria of the Berlin definition, in a considerable proportion of patients with COVID‑19, there is a dissociation between their relatively well‑preserved lung mechanics and the severity of hypoxaemia. The extent of pneumococcal related morbidity and mortality is largely unknown. Respiratory comorbidities that increase the risk of severe disease and mortality due to SARS‑CoV‑2 include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchiectasis and fibrotic interstitial lung diseases, regardless of aetiology. Pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccinations are useful in preventing a substantial burden of mortality in high‑risk populations, while general quarantine and social distancing can reduce the infiltration of the virus within the community. To date, several therapeutic agents have been studied or are currently examined, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, remdesivir, colchicines and interleukin‑6 inhibitors. However, the usage of most of these into clinical practice was not based on randomised clinical trials and their results should be viewed with extreme caution; remdesivir seems to be the more promising option. Rigorous efforts are under way for the development of a safe and successful vaccine against SARS‑CoV‑2.