Open Access

Effects of leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma on tendon disorders based on in vitro and in vivo studies (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Xueli Liu
    • Rong Zhang
    • Bin Zhu
    • Yujie Li
    • Xinyue Liu
    • Sheng Guo
    • Chenglong Wang
    • Dingxuan Wang
    • Sen Li
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 16, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10071
  • Article Number: 639
  • Copyright: © Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Tendon‑related disorders are common musculoskeletal system disorders in clinical practice, accounting for 30‑50% of all sports‑related injuries, and they are difficult to treat due to the hypovascular structure of the tendons. Platelet‑rich plasma (PRP), including pure PRP and leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma (L‑PRP), has been attracting increasing attention, as it may stimulate tissue regeneration through the release of growth factors and cytokines. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of the effects of L‑PRP on tendon disorders and the underlying mechanisms through a comprehensive examination of the published literature, including in vitro, animal and clinical studies. It has been demonstrated that L‑PRP results in comparatively greater pain relief and improved function in patients suffering from tendon disorders. Furthermore, L‑PRP may exert its effects through a diverse range of mechanisms, such as neovascularization, cell proliferation and differentiation of tendon/progenitor stem cells into tenocytes, as well as extracellular matrix reorganization by transforming type III to type I collagen fibers. It has also been indicated that the effects of leukocytes in L‑PRP depend on the biological state of the injured tissue and its surrounding microenvironment. L‑PRP is beneficial and promotes tendon healing at the early stage, whereas it is likely detrimental to the repair of tendon at a later stage because of the risk of excessive catabolic and inflammatory responses. Overall, the application of L‑PRP in tendon disorders appears to be a promising field that is worthy of further research.

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June-2021
Volume 21 Issue 6

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Online ISSN:1792-1015

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Spandidos Publications style
Liu X, Zhang R, Zhu B, Li Y, Liu X, Guo S, Wang C, Wang D and Li S: Effects of leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma on tendon disorders based on <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies (Review). Exp Ther Med 21: 639, 2021
APA
Liu, X., Zhang, R., Zhu, B., Li, Y., Liu, X., Guo, S. ... Li, S. (2021). Effects of leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma on tendon disorders based on <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 21, 639. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10071
MLA
Liu, X., Zhang, R., Zhu, B., Li, Y., Liu, X., Guo, S., Wang, C., Wang, D., Li, S."Effects of leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma on tendon disorders based on <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 21.6 (2021): 639.
Chicago
Liu, X., Zhang, R., Zhu, B., Li, Y., Liu, X., Guo, S., Wang, C., Wang, D., Li, S."Effects of leukocyte‑ and platelet‑rich plasma on tendon disorders based on <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 21, no. 6 (2021): 639. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10071