Fatty acids and their role in type‑2 diabetes (Review)
- Shilpa S. Shetty
- Suchetha Kumari
Affiliations: Central Research Laboratory, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka 575018, India, Department of Biochemistry, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka 575018, India
- Published online on: May 2, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10138
Copyright: © Shetty
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
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Age, lifestyle and diet are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin resistance (IR) and β‑cell dysfunction underlie the pathophysiology of T2DM. Diabetic populations are also prone to lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities as an indirect effect of IR on key metabolic enzymes. However, recent studies suggested that lipid changes may not only be a consequence of impaired glucose metabolism but also a causative factor. Fatty acids (FAs) influence translocation of glucose transporters and insulin receptor binding and signalling, in addition to cell membrane fluidity and permeability. It is thus suggested that FAs may have an essential role in the development of IR and T2DM. Specific combinations of FAs within phospholipids and triglycerides were indicated to exhibit the strongest associations with the risk of T2DM. The aim of the present review was to investigate the role of FAs in the pathogenesis of T2DM, as it has yet to be fully elucidated.